Operationaldefinitionsdefiningavariableintermsofthemet

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Unformatted text preview: Concordance Studies – comparisons of identical twins raised in different environments Cognitive-Mental processes-thinking, memory, perception. As compared to Behaviorism Recent improved techniques and procedures have allowed the study of cognitive aspects of psychology. Social-cultural - studies psychological differences and similarities across populations, cultures, or subgroups. Facial expression of emotions Research Methods Theory- an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. “It’s just a theory” implies that the theory has no scientific support, but really… Theories lead to questions that can be answered and are hopefully worth asking. Operational Definitions – defining a variable in terms of the methods used to measure that variable. For example: Degree of efficiency in a vehicle as defined by miles per gallon (MPG) Criteria for Good theories: Theories must: • • • Organize and link observed facts Generate testable hypotheses, and, sometimes practical applications. Have no ego involvement Importance of “Critical Thinking” Always question the results of research (intelligently) Never accept explanations at face-value Always question: Was the sample of subjects appropriate? Was there a control group? Were gender issues (etc.) considered? Model of Theory development/refinement: Steps in the Scientific Method: 1. Testable Hypotheses- a clearly stated, testable prediction, often implied by a theory. We can get these hypotheses from everyday life, but usually in science, theories are used as an organizational framework that guide research and permits certain predictions. Again: Operational Definitions - defining concepts in terms of the methods used to measure the concept. Example: Driving behavior defined as miles per gallon Aggression in animals defined as the number of attacks 2. Design the research and collect the data Quantification-Findings from research are always expressed (at first) in terms of probability statements. Research employs statistics to evaluate validity of results. Probability is important for making evaluative decisions Coin tossing example…. In research, to be believed, identical results must be found 95% of the time if the experiment is repl...
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