Speciale_Ledelse_og_forandring_Niels_Majland_J_rgensen_Douhet_.doc - FORSVARSAKADEMIET Fakultet for Strategi og Milit\u00e6re Operationer VUT II\/L-STK

Speciale_Ledelse_og_forandring_Niels_Majland_J_rgensen_Douhet_.doc

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FORSVARSAKADEMIET Fakultet for Strategi og Militære Operationer VUT II/L-STK 2006/07, Syndikat Douhet KN N. Majland Jørgensen APR 2007 LEDELSE OG ORGANISATORISK FORANDRING Hvorledes har udøvelse af ledelse og lederskab medvirket til gennemførelse af arbejdsprocesforandringer i Forsvarets Koncernfælles Informatiktjeneste?
Speciale STK 2006/07 Ledelse og organisatorisk forandring Indholdsfortegnelse Indholdsfortegnelse Figuroversigt Resume .............................................................................................................................. 5 Kapitel 1 Indledning ............................................................................................................ 7 1.1 Kapitlets formål ........................................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Baggrund .................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2.1 Mine oplevelser ................................................................................................................................. 8 1.2.2 Undren .............................................................................................................................................. 8 1.3 Relevans .................................................................................................................................... 8 1.4 Opgaveanalyse .......................................................................................................................... 9 1.4.1 Ledelse ............................................................................................................................................. 9 1.4.2 Organisatorisk ................................................................................................................................. 10 1.4.3 Forandring ...................................................................................................................................... 10 1.5 Afgrænsning ............................................................................................................................. 10 1.6 Problemstilling og problemformulering ...................................................................................... 11 1.7 Metode ..................................................................................................................................... 11 1.7.1 Undersøgelsesdesign ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.7.2 Valg af teori ..................................................................................................................................... 12 1.7.3 Empiri .............................................................................................................................................. 13 1.7.4 Specialets struktur .......................................................................................................................... 14 1.8 Validitet og reliabilitet ................................................................................................................ 14 1.8.1 Validitet ........................................................................................................................................... 14 1.8.2 Reliabilitet ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Kapitel 2 Teoripræsentation og diskussion ................................................................... 17 2.1 Kapitlets formål ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.2 Organisationsbeskrivelse (Leavitt-Ry) ...................................................................................... 17 2.2.2 Operationalisering af modellen ....................................................................................................... 18 2.2.3 Leavitt-modellen som forandringsmodel ......................................................................................... 18 2.3 Ændringsstrategier (Borum) ..................................................................................................... 19 2.3.1 Diskussion af teorien ....................................................................................................................... 20 2.3.2 Hjælpespørgsmål til analyse af ændringsstrategi ........................................................................... 20 2.4 Forandringsledelse (Kotter) ...................................................................................................... 20 2.4.1 Forandringsproblemet og forandringsprocessen ............................................................................ 20 2.4.2 Forandringsproblemet ..................................................................................................................... 20 2.4.3 Forandringsprocessen .................................................................................................................... 21 2.4.4 Ledelse og lederskab ...................................................................................................................... 22 2.4.5 Diskussion af teorien ....................................................................................................................... 23 2.4.6 Hjælpespørgsmål til analyse af forandringsledelse ......................................................................... 23 2.5 Borum vs. Kotter ....................................................................................................................... 23 Kapitel 3 Beskrivelse af casen ......................................................................................... 25 3.1 Kapitlets formål ......................................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Historie ..................................................................................................................................... 25 3.3 Omverden ................................................................................................................................. 25 3.4 Vision, værdier og mål .............................................................................................................. 26 3.5 Belønningssystemer ................................................................................................................. 26 3.6 Fysiske rammer ........................................................................................................................ 27 3.7 Struktur og opgaver .................................................................................................................. 28 3.7.1 Kommunikationsmønstre ................................................................................................................ 29
Speciale STK 2006/07 Ledelse og organisatorisk forandring 3.8 Teknologi .................................................................................................................................. 30 3.9 Aktører31 3.10 Organisationskultur ................................................................................................................. 32 3.10.1 Generelt ........................................................................................................................................ 32 3.10.2 Afdelingerne .................................................................................................................................. 32 3.10.3 Sammenligning af værdier og grundlæggende antagelser ........................................................... 33 3.11 Sammenfatning ...................................................................................................................... 34 Kapitel 4 Ændringsstrategi .............................................................................................. 35 4.1 Kapitlets formål ......................................................................................................................... 35 4.2 Problem eller mål ...................................................................................................................... 35 4.3 Organisatorisk perspektiv ......................................................................................................... 36 4.4 Valg af principiel løsningsmetode ............................................................................................. 37 4.5 Ændringsagenter ...................................................................................................................... 37 4.6 Ændringsteknologi .................................................................................................................... 38 4.6.1 Organisatorisk komponent .............................................................................................................. 38 4.6.2 Kognitiv mekanisme ........................................................................................................................ 39 4.6.3 Forandringsprocesser ..................................................................................................................... 40 4.6.4 Forandringsindikatorer .................................................................................................................... 40 4.7 Den valgte strategis hovedproblemer ....................................................................................... 41 4.8 Delkonklusion ........................................................................................................................... 42 Kapitel 5 Ledelse og lederskab ....................................................................................... 43 5.1 Kapitlets formål ......................................................................................................................... 43 5.2 Optøning ................................................................................................................................... 43 5.2.1 Etablering af en oplevelse af nødvendighed ................................................................................... 43 5.2.2 Oprettelse af den styrende koalition ............................................................................................... 44 5.2.3 Udvikling af en vision og en strategi ............................................................................................... 45 5.2.4 Kommunikation af forandringsvisionen ........................................................................................... 46 5.3 Praktisk forandringsfase ........................................................................................................... 47 5.3.1 Styrkelse af medarbejdernes kompetence ...................................................................................... 47 5.3.2 Generering af kortsigtede gevinster ................................................................................................ 48 5.3.3 Konsolidering af resultater og produktion af mere forandring ......................................................... 49 5.4 Fastfrysning .............................................................................................................................. 50 5.4.1 Forankring af nye fremgangsmåder i kulturen ................................................................................ 50 5.5 Delkonklusion ........................................................................................................................... 50 Kapitel 6 Konklusion og perspektivering ....................................................................... 53 6.1 Kapitlets formål ......................................................................................................................... 53 6.2 Konklusion ................................................................................................................................ 53 6.2.1 Ændringsstrategi ............................................................................................................................. 53 6.2.2 Anvendt ledelse/lederskab .............................................................................................................. 54 6.3 Perspektivering ......................................................................................................................... 55 Tillæg A Bibliografi Bilag 1 Interviewguide Bilag 2 Borums fire ændringsstrategier Bilag 3 Organigram over POKDM, FKO Informatikstab og ODM Bilag 4 Organigram over FKIT Bilag 5

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