02-gates-w-g

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Unformatted text preview: rse of an input • CMOS: complementary-symmetry metal–oxide– semiconductor Vsupply Vsupply A • Function: NAND • Symbol: B out B A A 0 1 0 1 B out 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 a b out • Function: NOR • Symbol: Vsupply A a B b out A A 0 1 0 1 B out 01 00 10 10 B out NOT: AND: OR: NAND and NOR are universal • Can implement any function with NAND or just NOR gates • useful for manufacturing NOT: a AND: a b OR: a b NAND and NOR are universal • Can implement any function with NAND or just NOR gates • useful for manufacturing One can buy gates separately • ex. 74xxx series of integrated circuits • cost ~$1 per chip, mostly for packaging and testing Cumbersome, but possible to build devices using gates put together manually http://techguru3d.com/4th‐gen‐intel‐haswell‐processors‐architecture‐and‐lineup/ The first transistor • An Intel Haswell • on a workbench at AT&T Bell Labs in 1947 • Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley – 1.4 billion transistors – 177 square millimeters – Four processing cores Hide complexity through simple abstractions • Simplicity – Box diagram represents inputs and outputs • Complexity – Hides underlying NMOS‐ and PMOS‐transistors and atomic interactions Vdd a out in out b Vss in d out a d b out Most modern devices are made from billions of on /off switches called transistors • We will build a processor in this course! • Transistors made from semiconductor materials: – MOSFET – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor – NMOS, PMOS – Negative MOS and Positive MOS – CMOS – complementary MOS made from PMOS and NMOS transistors • Transistors used to make logic gates and logic circuits We can now implement any logic circuit • Can do it efficiently, using Karnaugh maps to find the minimal terms required • Can use either NAND or NOR gates to implement the logic circuit • Can use P‐ and N‐transistors to implement NAND or NOR gates...
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This document was uploaded on 02/22/2014 for the course CS 3410 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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