Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: rse of an input • CMOS: complementary-symmetry metal–oxide– semiconductor Vsupply Vsupply A • Function: NAND • Symbol: B out B A A 0 1 0 1 B out 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 a b out • Function: NOR • Symbol: Vsupply A a B b out A A 0 1 0 1 B out 01 00 10 10 B out NOT: AND: OR: NAND and NOR are universal • Can implement any function with NAND or just NOR gates • useful for manufacturing NOT: a AND: a b OR: a b NAND and NOR are universal • Can implement any function with NAND or just NOR gates • useful for manufacturing One can buy gates separately • ex. 74xxx series of integrated circuits • cost ~$1 per chip, mostly for packaging and testing Cumbersome, but possible to build devices using gates put together manually http://techguru3d.com/4th‐gen‐intel‐haswell‐processors‐architecture‐and‐lineup/ The first transistor • An Intel Haswell • on a workbench at AT&T Bell Labs in 1947 • Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley – 1.4 billion transistors – 177 square millimeters – Four processing cores Hide complexity through simple abstractions • Simplicity – Box diagram represents inputs and outputs • Complexity – Hides underlying NMOS‐ and PMOS‐transistors and atomic interactions Vdd a out in out b Vss in d out a d b out Most modern devices are made from billions of on /off switches called transistors • We will build a processor in this course! • Transistors made from semiconductor materials: – MOSFET – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor – NMOS, PMOS – Negative MOS and Positive MOS – CMOS – complementary MOS made from PMOS and NMOS transistors • Transistors used to make logic gates and logic circuits We can now implement any logic circuit • Can do it efficiently, using Karnaugh maps to find the minimal terms required • Can use either NAND or NOR gates to implement the logic circuit • Can use P‐ and N‐transistors to implement NAND or NOR gates...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 02/22/2014 for the course CS 3410 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

Ask a homework question - tutors are online