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01-intro-i-g - Prof.KavitaBalaandProf.HakimWeatherspoon...

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Prof. Kavita Bala and Prof. Hakim Weatherspoon CS 3410, Spring 2014 Computer Science Cornell University
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Bridge the gap between hardware and software How a processor works How a computer is organized Establish a foundation for building higher level applications How to understand program performance How to understand where the world is going
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Electrical Switch On/Off Binary Transistor The first transistor on a workbench at AT&T Bell Labs in 1947
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1965 number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 24 months (i.e., grow exponentially with time) Amazingly visionary 2300 transistors, 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004) 1971 16 Million transistors (Ultra Sparc III) 42 Million transistors, 2 GHz clock (Intel Xeon) – 2001 55 Million transistors, 3 GHz, 130nm technology, 250mm 2 die (Intel Pentium 4) – 2004 290+ Million transistors, 3 GHz (Intel Core 2 Duo) – 2007 721 Million transistors, 2 GHz (Nehalem) 2009 1.4 Billion transistors, 3.4 GHz Intel Haswell (Quad core) – 2013
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SUN-4/260 MIPS M/120 MIPS M2000 IBM RS6000 HP 9000/750 DEC AXP/500 IBM POWER 100 DEC Alpha 4/266 DEC Alpha 5/500 DEC Alpha 21264/600 DEC Alpha 5/300 DEC Alpha 21264A/667 Intel Xeon/2000 Intel Pentium 4/3000
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1965 number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 24 months (i.e., grow exponentially with time) Amazingly visionary 2300 transistors, 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004) 1971 16 Million transistors (Ultra Sparc III) 42 Million transistors, 2 GHz clock (Intel Xeon) – 2001 55 Million transistors, 3 GHz, 130nm technology, 250mm 2 die (Intel Pentium 4) – 2004 290+ Million transistors, 3 GHz (Intel Core 2 Duo) – 2007 721 Million transistors, 2 GHz (Nehalem) 2009 1.4 Billion transistors, 3.4 GHz Intel Haswell (Quad core) – 2013
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CPU: Central Processing Unit
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An Intel Haswell 1.4 billion transistors 177 square millimeters Four processing cores http://techguru3d.com/4th gen intel haswell processors architecture and lineup/ The first transistor One workbench at AT&T Bell Labs 1947 Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley
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Galaxy Note 3 8 processing cores The first transistor One workbench at AT&T Bell Labs 1947 Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley
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CPU: Central Processing Unit GPU: Graphics Processing Unit
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Peak Performance ( 's/sec) Year HP CRX SGI Iris SGI GT HP VRX Stellar GS1000 SGI VGX HP TVRX SGI SkyWriter SGI E&S F300 One-pixel polygons (~10M polygons @ 30Hz) SGI RE2 RE1 Megatek 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 UNC Pxpl4 UNC Pxpl5 UNC/HP PixelFlow Flat shading Gouraud shading Antialiasing Slope ~2.4x/year (Moore's Law ~ 1.7x/year) SGI IR E&S Harmony SGI R-Monster Division VPX E&S Freedom Accel/VSIS Voodoo Glint Division Pxpl6 PC Graphics Textures SGI Cobalt Nvidia TNT 3DLabs Graph courtesy of Professor John Poulton (from Eric Haines) GeForce 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 ATI Radeon 256 nVidia G70
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Petaflops (10 15 ) – GPUs/multicore/100s-1000s cores
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Parallelism Pipelining
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Started in 1999 Flexible, programmable Vertex, Geometry, Fragment Shaders And much faster, of course
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