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Bio II LabPopulation Genetics, Evolution, & the Hardy-Weinberg EquilibriumLaboratory SynopsisIn this laboratory, you will use a physical model to examine simple biological situations where one of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions is not met and evolutionary change occurs. The results and conclusions from your simulation will be presented to your instructor.Laboratory Objectives1. Define the terms population and gene pool, and relate them to the concept of evolutionary change.2. Explain the Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium between allele frequencies and genotype frequencies and relate it to the expression (p + q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q3. Describe the five conditions necessary for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium.4. Explain how the lab exercise models either meet or violate the necessary Hardy-Weinberg conditions.2.1
Bio II Laballele genotypefrequencies frequencies (p + q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q2For example, for a single gene with two allelic forms (A and A′), if you know that the population frequency of allele A = 0.6 and A′ = 0.4, then you can say that p = frequency of allele A = 0.6q = frequency of allele A′ = 0.4The Hardy and Weinberg model predicts that the genotype frequencies in a population can be estimated by the expression.p2 + 2pq + q2Specifically,p2= frequency of AA genotype = (0.6)2 = 0.362pq= frequency of AA′ genotype = 2 (0.6) (0.4) = 0.48q2 = frequency of A′A′ genotype = (0.4)2 = 0.16Further, the Hardy–Weinberg model states that unless certain conditions are violated, these allele and genotype frequencies will be maintained through time (Figure 4.1). The Hardy-Weinberg conditions are the following: 1. No mutation2. No migration (including immigration or emigration) in the population. (no gene flow)3. Population size must be large. (no genetic drift)