Phylogenetics+and+speciation+Lab+03 - Phylogenetic...

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Phylogenetic inferenceRead 26.1-26.3Cladisticsis a method of hypothesizing relationshipsamong organisms
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Chapter 19 / Exercise 17
Biology: The Dynamic Science
Hertz/Russell
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Phylogenetic inferenceDefinitions:Apomorphy: Derived characterSynapomorphy: Shared derived characterPlesiomorphy:ancestral characterABCDapomorphysynapomorphyplesiomorphy
CLADOGRAM: is comprised of branches and nodesEBCDEABCD
CLADOGRAM: is comprised of branches and nodesEACDBC
Phylogenetic inferenceRead 26.1-26.3Phylogenetic trees are built from “characters”• characters can be morphological, behavioral, physiological, ormolecular.• there are two important assumptions about characters used to buildtrees:1. they are independent2. they are homologous
2.Any group of organisms is related by descent from acommon ancestor.Homology vs. Convergent Evolution (homoplasy)
Homoplasy
3. There is a dichotomous branching pattern of lineage-splitting.
Choose the taxa whose evolutionary relationshipsinterest youChoose an outgroup- a taxon outside the cladeDetermine the characters and character statesDetermine the polarity of charactersFigure out the order of evolution for each character.Group taxa by synapomorphiesWork out conflictsReconstructing trees: A step by step method
Reconstructing trees: A step by step method
Independent gain of camera eye requires twochanges
Independent gain of camera eye requires

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Term
Fall
Professor
Carlson,Mischel,Power
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Biology: The Dynamic Science
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Chapter 19 / Exercise 17
Biology: The Dynamic Science
Hertz/Russell
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