**Unformatted text preview: **he outer energy levels penetrate the inner levels so the
shielding of the core electrons is not totally effective.
• From most penetration to least penetration, the order is
ns > np > nd > nf (within the same energy level)
• This is what gives us our order of filling, with electrons
sub shells.
preferring s and p ___________________ Radial probability distribution it describes the probability
where the electron is
most likely to be found. • Describes
s orbital will be closer
then the p orbital.
2s electron can never
be as far as p orbital. • •
• • the probability of finding where an e- is mostly likely
going to be in an atom.
The higher the penetration, the higher probability of finding an
electron near the nucleus. As shown in the following graphs,
electrons of the s orbitals are found closer to the nucleus than
the p orbital electrons.
Likewise, the lower the energy level an electrons is located in,
the higher chance it is found to be near the nucleus.
The smaller the energy level (n) and the orbital angular
momentum quantum number (l) of an e- is, the more likely it will...

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