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Unformatted text preview: , how they live,
and how their undernourishment has come to be? These
are the people I study—those who are hungry and food
insecure in Canada. 46 OPTIONS POLITIQUES
MARS 2003 It is important to have a balanced perspective with
respect to hunger in developing and developed countries.
Malnutrition is synonymous with hunger in developing
countries. Malnutrition is defined as the failure to achieve
nutrient requirements, which can impair physical and/or
mental health. Also of concern are micronutrient deficiencies such as iron, iodine, and vitamin A. Developing countries measure malnutrition through anthropometric, or
growth, indicators. Stunting or low height for age is
arguably the best indicator of chronic malnutrition.
Sometimes absolute poverty and low per capita energy consumption are cited as indirect measures of hunger in the
Food insecurity is the term best used to define hunger
in developed societies. Food insecurity is defined as “the
inability to acquire or consume an adequate diet quality or
sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways, or Food security: more than a determinant of health
disease associated with dietary preferHarmonized Sales taxes, aggressively
the uncertainty that one will be able to
ence change from even modest ecopromoted entrepreneurism, modified
do so.” We know that hunger and food
nomic development, while at the same
labour legislation, privatized stateinsecurity is experienced differently at
time gross malnutrition persists. In
owned enterprises and restructured and
the household and individual levels,
North America, those with obesity and
downsized government. Despite optifor example, children experience less
chronic disease are often the poor, and
mism about global growth having a net
food insecurity than do their mothers.
more often the hungry. In short, our
positive impact on Canada, we saw the
At its most severe stage, food insecurihungry are often fat.
expansion of poverty throughout the
ty is experienced as absolute food depcountry, falling real wages and a growrivation (i.e., individuals not eating at
ing gap in incomes between the wealthall), which is equated with the classical
very brief social history of food
iest and the poorest segments of
hunger of developing countries. We
insecurity in Canada would read
Canadians. As a result, Canada witcan measure food insecurity directly
simply: Poverty increased then it deepnessed increasing levels of food insecuusing
ened. Food insecurity emerged then it
rity as one manifestation of growing
Indirect measures, such as food bank
increased in severity. While poverty is
poverty and inequity.
use, and adequacy of income, are also
a longstanding ar...
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This document was uploaded on 02/19/2014 for the course FNP 100 at Ryerson.
- Fall '11