Unformatted text preview: people in the
right work settings
◦ Research variables that are operationalized are clearly deﬁned so that they may be
‣ We need to be able to articulate what we are researching
• i.e.: what does it mean to be a "team player" being explicit!
◦ Observation is one procedure for measuring research variables
‣ Obtrusive observation is research observation in which the presence of the
observer is known to the participants. ‣ In contrast, unobtrusive observation is observation in which the presence of the
observation in which the presence of the observer is not known to the participants
• i.e.: cameras in the classroom or a secret shopper in the workplace
‣ Be mindful of an observer bias and /or an observer effect.
• observer bias: when a researcher goes in and has expectations of what he/she
sees and observers
• observer effect: situations like the Hawthorne Effect
◦ Self-Report Techniques are measurement methods that rely on research
participants' reports of their own behaviors or attitudes
‣ Surveys (most popular research method in the workplace) are a common selfreport measure in which participants are asked to report on their attitudes, beliefs,
and / or behaviors
• Be mindful of word choices and a courtesy bias
◦ word choice: words have connotative (cultural, individual) meanings.
◦ courtesy bias: the more sensitive the topic the more careful
◦ Interpreting and Using Research Results; should be considered when determining a
‣ Internal validity (control) is the extent to which extraneous or confounding
variables are removed
‣ External validity (generalizability) refers to whether research results obtained in
one setting will apply to another setting.
◦ Ethical Issues in Research and Practice in I/O Psychology
‣ The American Psychological Association lists several core principals that should
guide the ethical conduct of research in psychology, including I/O Psychology.
• ie: researching sexual assaults in the military will cause uneasiness because it is
a touchy topic, however, putting someone in a 150 degree temperature room is
‣ One key element in working with human participants is obtaining informed
‣ With informed consent, a research participant is fully informed of the nature of
the experiment and has the right to not participate....
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