ANTH240-Oct9

ANTH240-Oct9 - ANTH240-Oct9 Australopithecines and Early...

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ANTH240-Oct9 Australopithecines and Early Homo Ardipithicus ramidus -oldest solidly identified fossil -5.8-5.2 million years old -aramis, near lake turkana in Ethiopia -discovered by time white and berhane asfaw -remains of 17 individuals -small brains, molars, large canines (small canines human features), very thing tooth  enamel (diet of rich easy to chew fruit and vegetables, seen only in this species of  Australopithecus fossils) Sahelenthropus tchadensis -possibly 7-6 mya -southern sahara -found in 2001 only skull -ape-like features, brow ridges (human trait) -bipedal suggested, not known Orrorin tugenesis -possibly 6 mya -“original man” -found in 2001 -very fragmentary -arm bone length = female chimp, really small compared to human -precursor to Australopithecus -long fingerbones ape-like, ape-like canines and molars -maybe bipedal, grooves on thighbone for muscle attachments Southern ape = australopithecines (Africa) -very short span of time -more ape-like than human-like -all bipedal  human characteristic, no other animal before it bipedal 100% -preserved tree-climbing abilities, long fingers 
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-small brains -390-550 cubic cm brain   -1300cubic cm homo sapiens brain -primarily vegetarian, not tool users, small stature 3-5 ft tall 2 groups Gracile and Robust Robust:  jaw system, much stronger masticatory systems, large teeth, jaws, wide  cheekbones, saggital crest, strong muscle attachments, diet high in fibrous plants, not  connected to genus homo (selective adaptation that died out)
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course ANTH 240 taught by Professor Chisholm during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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ANTH240-Oct9 - ANTH240-Oct9 Australopithecines and Early...

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