ANTH240-Oct30

ANTH240-Oct30 - ANTH240-Oct30 Origins of Agriculture in SW...

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ANTH240-Oct30 Origins of Agriculture in SW Asia Theories of origins of agriculture Origins of Agriculture in SW Asia Hypotheses of Origins of Agriculture -Oasis Hypotheses -Natural Habitat Hypothesis (Hilly Flanks) -Population Pressure -Environmental -Co-evolution -Social Population Pressure Hypothesis -1960s  Lewis Binford -Farming not all that great compared to hunting and gathering -Fundamental assumption : agriculture as one real advantage— it can provide more food per unit  of land -When population increased, something had to feed the people, hence, cultivation and  domestication -didn’t provide a varied diet, like hunting -was a last resort, contradicts evolution as humans were mainly foragers, gatherers, and  hunters -when food became scarce, or population increased, something changed to keep balance -discovery of agriculture kept balance Edge Hypothesis -1970s  Mark Cohen -Built off  Binford -If population pressure causes agriculture, what causes population pressure? - the inherent tendency for growth in human populations -agriculture took place on edges of areas where wild plants grew - where humans lived -agriculture could be favored over foraging in higher population densities
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- seed plant crops, not as subject to overexploitation, unlike hunting, where you could kill  off animal resources -sedentary conditions favor agriculture, large groups of humans influence this Environmental Changes -Clear correlation between the origins of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene -Rapid environmental changes -Not the first major Pleistocene climate change -Independent development of agriculture, in some places thousands of years after the end of  the Pleistocene -End of the ice age -Terminal Pleistocene (end), glaciers retreating, quick shifts between cold and warm periods, 
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course ANTH 240 taught by Professor Chisholm during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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ANTH240-Oct30 - ANTH240-Oct30 Origins of Agriculture in SW...

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