Unformatted text preview: that are much longer or shorter than the species average tend to have
higher rates of infant mortality. This is an example of
a. Dispersive selection
b. Directional selection
c. Stabilizing selection
d. Convergent selection 37. Mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection can all result in evolutionary change. Which of these make
a population better adapted to its environment?
Of these four agents of evolutionary change, only natural selection results in adaptive evolution. 38. How are evolution and natural selection related?
Evolution refers to a change in characteristics of a population over time, while natural selection is the mechanism of this change. 39. Who has a greater fitness, a world-class bodybuilder with a single child, or an overweight, middle-aged accountant
with four children?
Fitness is a measure of reproductive output, not physical stature. The accountant with four children would therefore have a higher fitness than the bodybuilder in this example. 40. Why would faster rabbits tend to have more offspring than slower rabbits? What effect would this have on the next
(and future) generation(s) of rabbits?
Slower rabbits are more likely to get eaten by predators such as foxes, and faster rabbits are more likely to escape predators like foxes. A larger number of the fast rabbits will survive, and only the surviving rabbits are able to reproduce. The next generation of rabbits would tend to be slightly faster on average, since these are the traits passed on in larger numbers. 12. The founder effect is a type of
a. natural selection.
c. genetic drift.
d. gene flow.
41. In what kind of population is random genetic drift most pronounced?
a. Drift is greatest in large populatio...
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