ANTH240-sept11

ANTH240-sept11 - 9/11 ANTH240 History of Archaeology pt 2...

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9/11 ANTH240 History of Archaeology pt. 2 Theories in Archaeological Thought I Theory: logical model explaining a subject in a simplified manner First model in archaeology: “three age technological model”; stone, bronze, iron Theories in arch. Thought Where did archaeologists get models in 19 th cent.? European arch. Got from history North American arch. Got from anthropology Native socities still living Apparently human occupation more recent, no long dead societies like china, Africa or india. Changes with discovery of Mayan and Andean culture Lacked a long written native historical tradition Paradigm: accepted canon of scientific practice, including laws, theory, applications, and instrumentation that provide a model for a particular coherent tradition of scientific research – Thomas Kuhn -1962- Structure of Scientific Revolution --prescience: no centralized doctrine to guide research --Normal Science: enlarge paradigm; researchers failure if not done --Revolutionary Science: anomalous results build up to ‘crisis’ refined into a new paradigm -1968 David Clarke said that archaeology was in a pre-paradigmatic or prescience state before the 1960s Classificatory-Descriptive Phase Advanced that lead up to first real development of archaeology? Geology- dating of the earth Biology- theory of evolution Anthropology- Archaeology(Artifact Collection)- Unilinear Theory of Cultural Evolution -influenced professional archaeologists transatlantically -popular and powerful due to simplicity -originated by Herbert spencer, lewis henry morgan, and Edward tylor -living societies have evolutionary path, like 3-age model --stone=savagery --bronze=barbarism --iron=civilization Classificatory-Historical phase (1914-1960) -logical response to ‘unilinear theory of cultural evolution?’ - a theory that uses a more particular approach to understanding human diversity -focus of period was on regional chronologicaldevelopment -period can be split into: --1914-1940: Culture History --1940-1960: Cultural Ecology and Historical Materialism 1914-1940 Culture History -Stratigraphic Excavation and Research Methodology
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course ANTH 240 taught by Professor Chisholm during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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ANTH240-sept11 - 9/11 ANTH240 History of Archaeology pt 2...

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