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Chapter 04 - The Brain - PSYC 2010(Dr Escobar Chapter 4 The...

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1 The Brain and consciousness 4 th century B.C. Aristotle = Mind located in the heart Hippocrates = Mind located in the brain 2 nd century Galen = Mind located in the brain 19 th century Phrenology = Shapes on skull related to mental function The case of Phineas Gage Discovery of Broca’s area Early 20 th century Lashley’s principle of equipotentiality Wilder Penfield’s “awake brain” experiments Recording of individual neurons Late 20 th century Split brain studies Brain imaging Discovery of adult neurogenesis Into the 21 st century Stem cell research PSYC 2010 (Dr. Escobar) Chapter 4 - The brain
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2 The spinal cord • When we are exposed to noxious stimulation, we usually display a sensory-motor reflex. Reflexes and the spinal cord • This reflex can occur without involvement of the brain = spinal reflex. • Some neurons take information from the external world = sensory receptors (afferent). Reflexes need the operation of at least three neurons • Some neurons take information from one to another neuron = E.g., interneurons. • Some neurons take information to the muscles = motor neurons (efferent). PSYC 2010 (Dr. Escobar) Chapter 4 - The brain
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3 • The brain communicates with distal body parts using nerves that travel in the spinal cord. Pathways through the spinal cord • These nerves form “columns” or “pathways”. The brainstem and cerebellum PSYC 2010 (Dr. Escobar) Chapter 4 - The brain
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4 • The medulla and the pons are related to posture, balance, and vital reflexes such as breathing and heart rate.
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