471-2004-1-Concentrating collector-Serkan Kapucu

Difficult efficiencies for converting solar radiation

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Unformatted text preview: . difficult Efficiencies for Converting Solar Radiation to Work Efficiencies Tmax Topt etamax 100°C 63°C 2.2% 200°C 106°C 4.8% 400°C 179°C 8.5% 800°C 297°C 13.2% 1600°C 480°C 18.4% Table 6.1. Different degrees of concentration [12]. 7. Economic and Environmental Considerations Considerations The most important factor driving the solar energy system design process is whether the energy it produces is economical. Although there are factors other than economics that enter into a decision of when to use solar energy; i.e. no pollution, no greenhouse gas generation, security of the energy resource etc., design decisions are almost exclusively dominated by the ‘levelized energy cost’. This or some similar economic parameter, gives the expected cost of the energy produced by the solar energy system, averaged over the lifetime of the system. lifetime Commercial applications from a few kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts are now feasible, and plants totaling 354 MW have been in operation in California since the 1980s. Plants can function in dispatchable, grid-connected markets or in distributed, stand-alone applications. They are suitable for fossil-hybrid operation or can include cost-effective storage to meet dispatchability requirements. They can operate worldwide in regions having high beam-normal insolation, including large areas of the southwestern United States, and Central and South America, Africa, Australia, China, India, the Mediterranean region, and the Middle East, . Commercial solar plants have achieved levelized energy costs of about 12-15¢/kWh, and the potential for cost reduction are expected to ultimately lead to costs as low as 5¢/kWh [6]. ultimately 8. Conclusions 8. Concentrating solar power technology for electricity Concentrating generation is ready for the market. Various types of single and dual-purpose plants have been analysed and tested in the field. In addition, experience has been gained from the first commercial installations in use worldwide since the beginning of th...
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