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difficult Efficiencies for Converting Solar Radiation to Work
Efficiencies Tmax Topt etamax 100°C 63°C 2.2% 200°C 106°C 4.8% 400°C 179°C 8.5% 800°C 297°C 13.2% 1600°C 480°C 18.4% Table 6.1. Different degrees of concentration . 7. Economic and Environmental
The most important factor driving the solar energy
system design process is whether the energy it
produces is economical. Although there are factors other
than economics that enter into a decision of when to use
solar energy; i.e. no pollution, no greenhouse gas
generation, security of the energy resource etc., design
decisions are almost exclusively dominated by the
‘levelized energy cost’. This or some similar economic
parameter, gives the expected cost of the energy
produced by the solar energy system, averaged over the
lifetime of the system.
lifetime Commercial applications from a few kilowatts to
hundreds of megawatts are now feasible, and plants
totaling 354 MW have been in operation in California
since the 1980s. Plants can function in dispatchable,
grid-connected markets or in distributed, stand-alone
applications. They are suitable for fossil-hybrid operation
or can include cost-effective storage to meet
dispatchability requirements. They can operate
worldwide in regions having high beam-normal
insolation, including large areas of the southwestern
United States, and Central and South America, Africa,
Australia, China, India, the Mediterranean region, and
the Middle East, . Commercial solar plants have
achieved levelized energy costs of about 12-15¢/kWh,
and the potential for cost reduction are expected to
ultimately lead to costs as low as 5¢/kWh .
ultimately 8. Conclusions
Concentrating solar power technology for electricity
generation is ready for the market. Various types of
single and dual-purpose plants have been analysed
and tested in the field. In addition, experience has been
gained from the first commercial installations in use
worldwide since the beginning of th...
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This document was uploaded on 02/21/2014 for the course MEE 599 at Federal University of Technology.
- Spring '14