Topic 1 - Intro to cell biology (lec 2)

you can reduce diffusion distances u can cut down on

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Unformatted text preview: ce the need to fill up the whole cell with the substrate. > You can reduce diffusion distances, u can cut down on the need to move long distances across the entire cell. And u can increase cell SA, u can add projections that will increase the area for exchange > The use of membranes in eukaryotes is a big inavation, they acheive larger sizes than prokaryote cells. Eukaryotes have a transport systems, so they are not relient on diffusion alone for the movement of molecules around the cell. Transport systems over the problems of diffusion. > Eukaryotic cells come in four basic types, there are single celled organisms called protists Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their solutions to the problem of size Eukaryotes Protists (single-celled organisms), Fungi, Animals, Plants (multicellular) Solution compartmentalization of cellular functions (membrane elaboration), transport systems Fig. 22.18 > Protists are eukaryote cells that are single celled. > There are three other groups of eukaryotes which are multicellular. They are Fungi, Animals and Plants Fig. 22.6 Fig. 22.2 BIO 1140 – SLIDE 10 Fig. 22.4 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their solutions to the problem of size Eukaryotes Protists (single-celled organisms), Fungi, Animals, Plants (multicellular) Solution compartmentalization of cellular functions (membrane elaboration), transport systems Arabidopsis thaliana Caenorhabditis elegans Danio rerio Drosophila melanogaster Mus musculus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Purple pages F52-F56 http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ BIO 1140 – SLIDE 11 A gallery of eukaryotic cell organelles Major structural features Plasma membrane Nucleus (membrane-bound) Membrane-bound organelles Cytosol (vs cytoplasm) BIO 1140 – SLIDE 12 See Fig. 2.8 > These organims are great intrest to humans. Fungi, animals and plants are used in vast amounts of research. These are usually choosen b/c they have intresting characteristics and/or they are easy to work with in a lab setting. These are called the MODEL ORGANISMS > One plant that is very popular (Arabidopsis Thaliana), it has a relatively small genome for a plant. It grows fast in a growth chamber or a greenhouse and has a quick generation time. > a fungus that is popular (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) also known as yest, it is small, easily grown, show all the characteristics that larger fungi show. > several animals used, the first is round worm (Caenorhabditis elegans/ sea elegans). It is small, lives happily in petri dishes, it has exactly 959 cells and the dvelopmental fate of every cell has been maped out. if ur intrested in how the organism developes, or how the organism moves from one place to another. They show development, age, they show behaviour. > The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) , best for genetics, and evolution > Mouse (Mus Musculus) model organisms for humans, used for a subsitute for humans. lives happily in a cage, has a generation time of 3 months, can hold large #'s in s...
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2014 for the course BIO 1140 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Winter '07 term at University of Ottawa.

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