Topic 1 - Intro to cell biology (lec 2)

2015 prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their

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Unformatted text preview: al flagellum Fig. 20.3 Capsule BIO 1140 – SLIDE 7 Fig. 20.15 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their solutions to the problem of size Prokaryotes For review, see Solution stay small, typically 1-5 µm Simple structure: cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm that lacks organelles (cyanobacteria possess photosynthetic membranes), ribosomes, nucleoid, flagellum Archaea (extremophiles) prokaryotes Bacteria Clostridium butyricum Fig. 20.20 Fig. 20.11 BIO 1140 – SLIDE 8 Fig. 20.15 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their solutions to the problem of size Eukaryotes Protists (single-celled organisms), Fungi, Animals, Plants (multicellular) Solution compartmentalization of cellular functions (membrane elaboration), transport systems Mitochondrion Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Free ribosomes Nucleus prokaryotes Rough ER Lysosome Smooth ER Cytosol Microtubules See Fig. 2.8 Microfilaments Vesicle Golgi complex Plasma membrane BIO 1140 – SLIDE 9 Fig. 20.15 > Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells with respect to these limitations. > Prokaryote cells, these are the cells that lack a Nucleus, they are very simple cell, typically they consist a cell membrane bounded by a cell wall, inside the membrane there is a semi liquid fluid, which is the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm includes ribosomes for protein synthesis, and the genetic material of the cell. The genetic material of the cell is in the form of a single circular chromosome without structural proteins, it is generally all folded on itself and forms something that is called a Nucleoid. > There solution to the constrate problem is to stay small, typically 1-5 um (microns). They are very diverse > They fall into two groups Bacteria and Archea > Archea are often best known as the extreamophiles. These are prokaryote cells that have adapted to really challanging environments. For Example, there are prokaryotic cells that are adapted to very high temps (Thermophiles), to very high salt levels (halophiles), there are archea found in the gut in extreamly low pH's of pH 1 (acidophiles), there are anerobic versions that produce methane and are responsible for the methane that u find at the bottom of swamps. >The other group of prokaryote cells are the Bacteria, this is a very large and very diverse group. The MODEL BACTERIA is ECOLI, it is the model b/c it grows very fast in the lab, when u feed it they divide into 20 and can get a million in an hour. Insuline is now produced by Ecoli > Eukaryotic cells, they are typically much larger than prokaryotic cells, they are 10-30 um (microns). How they acheive these larger cell sizes, how do they over come the consentration on size that keep prokaryotic cells so small? > Eukaryotes have membranes everywhere in the cell. One straterge that eukaryote cell have used is to increase their size is to divide the cytoplasm into compartments by means of these membrane structures. By compartmentalizing the reaction u redu...
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