Topic 1 - Intro to cell biology (lec 2)

This is what gives u a firm plant golgi complex stack

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Unformatted text preview: the other contents of the cell and this is called Turgor pressure.This is what gives u a firm plant. Golgi complex Stack of flattened vesicles Sorting, modification and packaging of proteins Vesicles Transport among organelles and/or to plasma membrane Lysosomes, peroxisomes Central vacuole Vacuole Contain hydrolases, catalases Temporary storage Turgor pressure in plant cells BIO 1140 – SLIDE 16 Fig. 2.9 > The Mitochondrion and the Chloroplast share many features. They also share these features with other types of cells. > Mitochondrion and Chloroplast are realtively large oragnelles > Mitochondrion are about 2um (microns) in dimaeter. Is bounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is highly folded (Cristae) and it serves as an anchore for proteins that are involved in ATP synthesis. ATP is synthesisized through oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrion have mDNA, this DNA takes the form of single circular naked DNA chromosome. Have smaller, less complex ribosomes, they can synthesize their own proteins. The cell cannot synthesize mitochodria, can only come from prexisting mitochondria. They can reproduce by binary fission > Chloroplast are about 5um (microns) in dimaeter. Is bounded by a double membrane. Within the double membrane there is a third set of flaten scas called Thylakoids, and these are the site of chlorophylle, this is the site where light energy can be absorbed and than converted into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. Chlorplasts have cpDNA, this DNA takes the form of single circular naked DNA chromosome. Have smaller, less complex ribosomes, they can synthesize their own proteins. The cell cannot synthesize cholroplast, can only come from prexisting chloroplast. They can reproduce by binary fission > Both Mitochondrion and Chloroplast are similar in Prokaryotes Figs. 6.8, 2.17 Mitochondrion ~2 µm Double membrane, cristae Oxidative metabolism yielding ATP Circular mDNA Reproduce by fission Chloroplast ~5 µm Double membrane + thylakoids Conversion of light energy to chemical energy (complex carbohydrates) Circular cpDNA Reproduce by fission Figs. 7.3, 2.24 BIO 1140 – SLIDE 17 Original prokaryotic cell Endosymbiont theory Mitochondria from incorporation of aerobic prokaryote Chloroplast from (later) incorporation of cyanobacterium Evidence to support this theory? Fig. 3.21 Aerobic bacteria... ... become mitochondria Photosynthetic bacteria... ... become chloroplasts Eukaryotic cells (plants, some protists) BIO 1140 – SLIDE 18 Eukaryotic cells (animals, fungi, some protists) > The realtionship b/w prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The fossil record suggests that Prokaryotic cells arose before Ekaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells arose in the fossil record about 3 and a half billion yrs ago. Eukaryotic cells around 2 billion yrs ago.The chemical similarties b/w prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells suggets that they came from a common ancestor. > How did prokaryotic cells evolve into eukaryotic cells?The main difference b/w them is the presence of membrane in eu...
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