Biology Test 3

Biology Test 3 - Biology Test 3: Ch. 16 & 17...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology Test 3: Ch. 16 & 17 Chapter 16: Plants, Fungi, and the Move onto Land I. Colonizing Land a. Plants are terrestrial organisms b. Plant: a multicellular eukaryote that makes organic molecules by photosynthesis c. Photosynthesis distinguishes plants from animal and fungal kingdoms d. Terrestrial Adaptations of Plants i. Structural Adaptations 1. Most plants have symbiotic fungi associated with their roots ( mycorrhizae ) (fungus root) 2. Sugars produced by the plant nourish the fungi 3. Leaves are main photosynthetic organs 4. Exchange of O 2 and CO 2 occurs via stomata (pores on leaf) 5. Cuticle (waxy layer) helps plant retain water 6. Lignin: skeleton of plant 7. Vascular System a. Xylem: water and minerals b. Phloem: sugars ii. Reproductive Adaptations 1. For algae the surrounding water ensures that gametes and developing offspring stay moist 2. Plants produce their gametes in protective structures called gametangia. 3. Gametangium has a jacket of protective cells surrounding a moist chamber where gametes can develop without dehydrating 4. Sperm reaches egg by traveling within pollen (carried by wind/animals) 5. In plants, the zygote develops into an embryo while still contained within the female parent e. The Origin of Plants from Green Algae i. Move onto land and spread of plants to diverse environments was incremental ii. Green algae are protists most closely related to plants iii. Charophyceans is type of green algae most closely related iv. Terrestrial living allowed by adaptations for at least 475mya I I. Plant Diversity a. Highlights of Plant Evolution i. 4 major periods: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms b. Bryophytes i. Mosses are most familiar ii. Grow in mats (mats have spongy quality to absorb/retain water) iii. 2 key adaptations that made move to land possible 1. A waxy cuticle helps prevent dehydration 2. The retention of developing embryos within the mother plants gametangium iv. Need water to reproduce (sperm have flagella and must swim through water to get to eggs) v. No vascular tissue vi. No lignin vii.2 forms of plant 1. Gametophyte a. Greener, sponge-like b. Haploid c. Produce gametes 2. Sporophytes a. Grows out of gametophyte as a stalk b. Diploid c. Produce spores d. Spores differ from gametes in 2 ways i. Can develop into a new organism without fusing with another cell ii. Have tough coats that enable them to resist harsh environments 3. Gametes and sporophytes are alternating generations a. Gametophytes produce gametes that unite to form zygotes which develop into new sporophytes, and thus new spores, which give rise to new gametophytes b. Gametophyte is the dominant generation c. Ferns i. Evolved with vascular tissue ii. Need water for reproduction iii. Seedless iv. Most diverse (12000 species known) v. Undecomposed remains of ferns from carboniferous period (360- 300mya) are basis of much of the coal today (coal forest) d. Gymnosperms i. Descendants are conifers ii.ii....
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Biology Test 3 - Biology Test 3: Ch. 16 & 17...

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