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Chapter 6 Emotional Health and Well - Chapter 6 Emotional...

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Chapter 6 Emotional Health and Well-BeingCuranderismo– a form of practiced medicine found in many Latin American countries;performed by acuranderoPsychosomatic illness– an illness believed to have underlying emotional or psychologicalcausesSection I Four Models of Well-BeingBiomedical Model-A model supported by scientific inquiry and empirical study-Proposes that health is the absence of disease or dysfunction-Disease is defined as an abnormality, dysfunction or deviation in a body organ or otherbody structure-This wholly physiologically based concept of health is consistent with some earlierbeliefs-The biomedical model defines dysfuntionality as an illness and interprets physiologicalsymptoms as signs of the illnessLimitations of the Biomedical Model-By focusing on the physical causes of illness, the biomedical model overlooks emotionalor psychological determinants that also influence well-being-The second limitation is the problem-oriented focus of the biomedical model – proposesthat a change in normal bodily functions that results in a deviation from or dysfunction ofthe body signals a problem to be rectified-Some illnesses can occur independent of symptomsoi.e. hypertension (aka “the silent killer”) – often develops with no observablesymptomsoi.e. HIV – no external symptoms-In some cases, external symptoms of an illness can appear without evidence of anunderlying disease or diseases may be present but no identifiable symptoms are presentBiopsychosocial Model- Engel-AKA holistic health model-Supports the belief that well-being is determined by biological, psychological andsociological factors-Psychological influences: emotions, social support systems, health behaviours, personaltraits-Sociological factors: familial, cultural, and community factors-Appends the psychological and sociological determinants of health to the biomedicalmodel – biology is still at the center of the definitionPsychological Factor #1: Emotions-Hippocrates: relationship between health and emotions
oBelieved that an imbalance in any one of four body fluids (humors) could lead toillnessBlack bilesadness/melancholyYellow bileanger-Emotions and the Immune SystemoRabin: One way that emotions affect our immune system is through the nervefibers in our bodiesoFibers connect with the CNS – brain + brain stemoThe nerve fibers act like cables carrying information from our receptors to ourCNSoThe messages are carried by neurochemicals – neurotransmitters – that travelwithin the neuron cablesoWhen sending messaged from a receptor site to the brain, a NT is triggered at thereceptor site and passed along from neuron to neuron via the dendrites until themessage reaches the processing center of the brainDendrites are branchlike structures that extend from the cell body andreceive the neurochemical message from other cellsoOnce the message is received, the axon carries the message to neighbouring cellsoThe nerve cables that carry messaged can be categorized as afferent or efferentnerve fibersAfferent = carry info TO the CNS from the receptor sitesEfferent = carry info FROM the CNS to the periphery of the body tocoordinate the response-Impact of Emotions on HealthoResearch on stress helps to demonstrate the effect of emotions on health outcomesoImmune system – body’s defense system against illness-producingmicroorganismsoCohen: stress may influence the production of hormones that turn affect theimmune systemoEpinephrine – a stress hormones that helps to suppress the immune systemSuppressing the body’s immune system decreases the body’s ability tofight foreign or disease-carrying microorganisms and increases the risk ofcontracting a diseaseoIf an individual experiences high levels or extended periods of stress, the bodymay increase production EPI and signal the brain the immune systemoSchulz: link between depression and mortalityIndividuals with depressive symptoms were 25% more likely to die within6 yearsEmotional factor (depression) negatively influences the physiologicalhealth of individuals, resulting in an early onset of deathoDepression cannot be defined as the definitive cause for early deathDepression can affect hormone productionimmune suppressionDepression can lead to self-destructive behaviours-Negative Emotions, Positive Effects

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