Chem 154 - 2012 Winter - handout 08

098 7 c boron 13 mg sodium 19 12011 16 via 15 va 14

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Unformatted text preview: adium Actinide Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Ununbium Ununtrium Ununquadium Ununpentium Ununhexium Ununseptium Ununoctium Alkali Metal Alkaline Earth Metal 57 Metal Metalloid 138.91 58 140.12 59 140.91 60 144.24 61 145 62 150.36 63 151.96 64 157.25 65 158.93 66 162.50 67 164.93 68 167.26 69 168.93 70 173.04 71 174.97 La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Lanthanum Non-metal Halogen Cesium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Noble Gas Lanthanide/Actinide Z mass Symbol manmade 89 227 90 232.04 91 231.04 92 238.03 93 237 94 244 95 243 96 247 97 247 98 251 99 252 100 257 101 258 102 259 103 262 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Name a The image of the periodic table in this section is from http://www.texample.net/tikz/ examples/periodic- table- of- chemical- elements/ The Bird’s Eye View: Blocks REMINDER: Each element (isotope) is identified by x The atom number (proton number) Z: the number of protons. y The mass number (atomic mass number) A: the number of protons and neutrons together. • The number of neutrons is N = A − Z. A • The notation adopted is Z X , where X is the element symbol. EXAMPLE: For carbon, 12 C or 13 C. 6 6 • Often, Z is omitted because this is already specified by the symbol name. REMINDER: The chemical properties of an element is determined by its electrons. Only some electrons actually participate in chemical reactions. These are called valence electrons. • The P.T. has 18 groups (columns) and 7 periods (rows). NOTE: Because electron shells are filled up during a period, the elements in one group have similar electron configurations. ⇒ elements within a group (for example Cu, Ag, Au) tend to have similar chemical properties. NOTE: We combine the P.T. into blocks, depending on the highest orbital type that is being filled x periods 1+2: s-block 2–70 y periods 3-12: the d-block z periods 13–18: the p-block { lanthanides+act...
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