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Groundnut kernels contain 47-53% oil and 25-36% protein. The crop is cultivated
between 40ºN to 40ºS of the equator. Groundnut is a self pollinated crop whereby
flowers are produced above ground and, after fertilization, pegs move towards the soil,
and seed-containing pods are formed and developed underneath the soil.
The productivity of groundnuts varies from 3500 kg/ha in the United States of America
to 2500 kg/ha in South America, 1600 kg/ha in Asia, and less than 800 kg/ha in Africa.
This is due mainly to various abiotic and biotic constraints. Abiotic stresses of prime
importance include temperature extremes, drought stress, soil factors such as alkalinity,
poor soil fertility and nutrient deficiencies. Groundnuts grow best in light textured
sandy loam soils with neutral pH. Optimum temperature for their growth and
development ranges from 28 to 30 ºC; the crop requires about 500-600 mm of well
The main yield limiting factors in semiarid regions are drought and high temperat...
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- Spring '14