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stress. The stages of reproductive development prior to flowering, at flowering and at
early pod development, are particularly sensitive to these constraints. Apart from N, P
and K, other nutrient deficiencies causing significant yield losses are Ca, Fe and B.
Biotic stresses mainly include pests, diseases and weeds. Among insects pests pod
borers, aphids and mites are of importance. The most important diseases are leaf spots,
rusts and the toxin-producing fungus Aspergillus.
1. Origin and Distribution The cultivated groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) originated in South
America. The term Arachis is derived from the Greek word "arachos", meaning a weed,
and hypogaea, meaning underground chamber, i.e. in botanical terms, a weed with fruits
produced below the soil surface. There are two most common names used for this crop i.e.
groundnut or peanut. The term groundnut is used in most countries of Asia, Africa, Europe
and Australia, while in North and South America it is commonly re...
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This document was uploaded on 02/23/2014.
- Spring '14