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2.20.06 L55 - Lecture 55 DNA Technology Studying how genes...

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May 7, 2009 Lecture 55: DNA Technology  Studying how genes function usually requires that you use restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific  locations.  Restriction Enzymes Specific enzymes that cut foreign DNA in bacteria for protections After being “restricted”, foreign DNA is digested by exonucleases. How REs work: REs recognize specific sequences and cut it both directions Sequences are recognized are 4 to 8 bases (always an eeven number) Note about what sequences can be cut: o MUST BE A  PALINDROME . RE Cutting Palindrome: Strands must read the same 5’ to 3’ Blunt Cutters: Cut straight Stagger Cutters: Not straight up. DNA cut by the same RE are cut the exact same To seal recomb DNA,  ligase  is used. Structure & Function Most REs are homodimer: 2 protein subunits, each identical in its subunits.  Protection from own REs: o Modification enzymes  add a chemical group called methylfication that protects the  enzyme from being cut in the specific region the the REs would normally cut.
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