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Test_4_Notes - EcologyTest4 An ecological community is an...

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Ecology Test 4 An ecological community is an assemblage of plant and animal populations that interact and influence one another. (biotic component with an environment) Individualistic concept (idealistic—whole is greater than sum of its parts) Communities are structured in four ways (all biotic interactions in an area): o Physiognomic – physical structure (ex: plant/community) o Species composition – diversity o Trophic – how is energy transferred from one part of community to other, functional feeding groups o Temporal – seasonal or diurnal activity (what type of patterns are occurring) Ex: of plant physical structure A- Location of Overwintering parts such as buds, bulbs or seeds B- Life form, leaf form characteristics Plant communities reflect many different growth forms with different characteristics Raunkiaer (Life forms) – developed a classification for plant based on their position of their over wintering structures (of buds, bulbs, seeds) Communities often represent many different growth forms that many different niches and forms 1- Phanerophytes – phyte-means plant – phaneros means visible-- they carry buds in the tips/ends of their branches They are exposed to extremes of climate Most trees and large shrubs are phanerophytes 2&3 - Chammaephytes – Chammae- small shrubs and herbs that grow close to the ground that have a prostrate life form – proximity of soil protects the bud (grows close to the ground) Buds low and close to ground Small shrubs and herbs that grow close to ground Prostrate life form- where they are lying down on ground Proximity to the soil protects the bud In winter, snow can provide addition protection Plants frequently occur in cool dry climates 4 - Hemicryptophytes – partially buried Surviving buds are situated in soils surface Buds are protected by soil or leaf litter (partially hidden) Occur in cool moist climates 5-9 are cryptophytes – or geophytes – buds are completely buried beneath the soil
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7-9 underwater Buds are protected from extreme weather b/c they are completely buried beneath the soil Frequently occur in cool moist climates (not on picture) Therophytes- thero-means summer they are plants that complete their life cycle from seed to seed and die within a season Die off during unfavorable season Do not have persistent buds (annuals) Occur in deserts and grasslands OR COMPARE THIS TO……… B- growth form and leaf characteristics (life forms) 1: annual herb 2: broad leaf evergreen; leanna growing on it AKA vine uses it as a trellis 3: Drought deciduous shrub – drops leaves during dry season to cut transpiration 4: Winter deciduous tree – drop leaves during winter (b/c decreased sunlight, and if you decrease surface area for snow to build up less likely to drop branches) 5: Stem succulent- store water in the stem (leaves are modified spines) 6: Bulbus herbaceous perennial 7: Needle leaf evergreen – pines, spruce
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