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Unformatted text preview: Learning What is Learning?? Learning the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior Pavlov's Dogs Pavlov' Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning =leads to the = learning of relations between events that occur outside of one's control Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned response (UCR) conditioned stimulus (CS) conditioned response (CR) food salivation bell salivation Extinction Extinction = after repeated absence of UCS, CR stops Bell (CS) Food (US) Salivation (CR) Spontaneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery = conditioned
responding that has disappeared in extinction recovers spontaneously w/the passage of time Resting Period Bell (CS) Salivation Generalization Generalization = a new stimulus produces a
response similar to the one produced by the conditioned stimulus (CS) Bell (CS) Salivation Alarm Clock Salivation Discrimination Discrimination = the response to a new stimulus is different from the response to the original CS Bell (CS) Salivation Light No Salivation Operant Conditioning Procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their actions Shaping
reinforcing successive approximations (partial responses) to a desired behavior B.F. Skinner Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement = an event that, when presented after a response, increases the likelihood of a response occurring again Negative Reinforcement Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimuli Subtracting something Observational Learning Observational Learning = learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others Also called `social learning' Atypical Undesirable Maladaptive unjustifiable Anxiety Disorders Anxiety
Post traumatic Stress: follows an extremely Stress: traumatic event Specific Phobias Social Phobias Panic Attack Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorders
Episode in which intense, unpredictable anxiety DREAD & Terror
These symptoms can include: Shortness of breath Chest pain & discomfort, heart palpitations Feeling of chocking, smothering Tingling in hands and feet Hot and Cold Flashes Sweating and shaking Later vulnerable to agoraphobia Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsession: Obsession: disturbing thoughts repeatedly intrude into awareness Compulsion: irrational Compulsion: compulsive behavior DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder xcessive worry & anxiety about a number of events or activities (free floating arousal) t least 3 of the following:
ension (and apprehension) rritability leep disturbance asily fatigued estlessness/keyed up/on edge ifficulty concentrating/mind going blank More woman suffer with_________ More men suffer with__________ Greatest Sex Organ= Brain Sexual Dysfunction
Impairment in: 1)Desire for sex.. or 2) Ability to achieve it This is an inhibition within the sex response cycle DSM: Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Desire Disorders Sexual Arousal Disorder -Female Sexual Arousal Disorder -Male Erectile Disorder (impotence) (30% of Viagra users experience severe headache) unconventional sex an attraction to inappropriate individuals or objects Not understood as well as dysfunctions persistent sexual behavior patterns in which: unusual objects or situations are required for Sexual satisfaction Paraphilias: Exhibitionism Paraphilias: Fetishism (M>F) Paraphilias: Frotteurism Paraphilia: Pedophilia (M>F) Paraphilia: Sexual Masochism Paraphilia:Transvestic Fetishism Paraphilia:Transvestic Paraphilia: Voyeurism Paraphilia NOS, included but not NOS, limited to the following: Telephone scatologia (obscene phone calls) Necrophilia (corpses) Partialism (exclusive focus on part of body) Zoophilia (animals) Coprophilia (Feces) Klismaphilia (enemas) Urophilia (urine) Gender Identity Disorder: Gender Identity Disorder: "I feel like a woman trapped in a man's body" man' body" Eating Disorders: An Overview Two Major Types of Eating Disorders:
Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Eating Disorders NOS:
e.g. Binge-eating disorder (eating is out of control) Obesity (not in DSM) Similarities: Anorexia & Bulimia Differences in Anorexia & Bulimia Dissociative Disorders: "disruptions in a persons sense of identity" identity" Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder Depersonalization Disorder (sudden loss of sense of self; derealization: like watching self in a movie, feels like floating above body, watching self) Dissociative Disorder NOS *All involve Memory Loss *Studies of brains: support DID is real disorder Body Dysmorphic
x------------------------------------------------------------------------------x Hallucinations Bias Warped notion regarding a part of the guitine body, i.e. nose, focus on how deformed it is. It is well beyond mere body dissatisfaction that many people have, patient does not want attention drawn to defect Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder (5 or more for 2 weeks)
#1. depressed mood most of day (sad, empty) #2 loss of interest or pleasure (inability to experience pleasure: Anhedonia) #3 significant weight loss or gain (5% of body) #4 insomnia or hypersomnia #5 psychomotor agitation or retardation #6 fatigue or loss of energy #7 feel worthless or inappropriate guilt #8 diminished ability to think, concentrate, indecisiveness #9 recurrent thoughts of death, suicide Happiest
1. married men 2 single woman 3. married woman 4.Single men Positive Psychology
Know the virtues For example: Love Wisdom Characteristic symptoms 1.Delusions are disturbances in the content of thought 1.Delusions Common delusions: thoughts, feelings, are being controlled private thoughts are being broadcasted, thoughts are being inserted, thoughts robbed by external forces `TV, pillow, giving secret messages to me' me' `My organs have been removed' removed' 2. Hallucinations are disruptions in perceptions. perception in the absence of external stimulus, no basis in reality most common are auditory, hearing "voices" (75%) voices" visual (15%) tactile= rare. Ego Dystonic temporary (e.g., panic attack " not me") me" = Axis I: Ego Syntonic = Axis II: II: pervasive= " this is okay, this is me" me" It's "who I am", "What's your problem?" It' am" What' problem?" *relatively permanent, patterns permanent, of maladaptive behavior Cluster A
Paranoid Personality Disorder: Disorder: distrust suspicious Cluster A
Schizoid Personality Disorder: Disorder: (appears cool, aloof) indifference to interpersonal relationships restricted emotional range Cluster A
Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Disorder: (appears odd) interpersonal deficits eccentricities in cognition, perception, & behavior visual, attentional, & memory deficits comparable to those seen in schizophrenia Cluster B Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Behavior Entertaining! Histrionic Personality Disorder: Disorder: (drama queen) excessive emotionality attention seeking Cluster B Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Disorder: grandiosity need for admiration lack of empathy Cluster B Borderline Personality Disorder: Disorder: instability in interpersonal relationship, self image, and affect marked impulsivity Cluster B Antisocial: Antisocial: disregard for and violation of the rights of others Cluster C Anxiety or Fearfulness (Conscientious) Cluster C Avoidant Personality Disorder: (fears Disorder: rejection) social inhibition, upset by lack of social relations feelings of inadequacy hypersensitivity to negative evaluations (criticism Cluster C Dependent Personality Disorder: Disorder: (environmentally influenced) need to be taken care of submissive and clingy behavior fear of separation (abandonment) Cluster C ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder: preoccupation with orderliness perfectionism interpersonal control rigid and cold Intelligence Gardner's Theory of Gardner' Multiple Intelligences 8 kinds of intelligence Linguistic Spatial intelligence intelligence Logical-mathematical intelligence Musical intelligence Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Nature Interpersonal & Intrapersonal intelligence together = EQ (Emotional Intelligence) 3 principles of test construction Standardization So your score can be compared to others Reliability Yield dependently consistent scores Validity Measures what it is supposed to WAIS - R WAIS R = IQ test Verbal IQ (digit span; arithmetic) Performance IQ Subtests of WAIS R Vocabulary = best predictor of verbal IQ Block Design = baseline test of performance IQ IQ Test 130 + 120 129 110 119 90 109 80 89 70 79 69 under >>>> >>>> >>>> >>>> >>>> >>>> >>>> Very Superior Superior High Average Average Low Average Borderline Mentally Retarded Is intelligence inherited? Identical twins reared together & identical twins reared apart = both high in IQ concordance BIOLOGY TENDS TO OVERRIDE ENVIRONMENT! THERAPY . 1st talk cure Then, if needed, 2nd medication as adjunct If nothing works over time, try ECT BIO PSYCHO SOCIAL Biomedical Therapies Drug Therapies Biomedical Therapies (cont'd) (cont' Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Mimics an epileptic seizure & somehow gets the neurotransmitters to the right places Classical Psychoanalytic THERAPY Psychoanalysis Key Can't understand Can' problems today without understanding problems of early relationships (ex: with parents & siblings) Goal
Bring whatever has been repressed into awareness By understanding the process puts it under patient's control patient' Insight Behavior Therapies No insight Just change the behavior Opposite of psychoanalysis Behavior Therapies (cont'd) (cont' Behavior Modification
1. Identify target behavior 2. Monitor to establish baseline 3. Identify positive reinforces 4. Establish schedule of reinforcement 5. Enlist social support 6. Monitor & record progress Behavior Therapies (cont'd) (cont' Systematic Desensitization Gradually making a connection between the thing feared & the emotion of relaxation Behavior Therapies (cont'd) (cont' Averse Conditioning Electric shock therapy Behavior Therapies (cont'd) (cont' Modeling Therapist states, "Here's how you do......follow after me." Here' do......follow me." Virtual Reality Exposure therapy Behavior Therapies (cont'd) (cont' Flooding Large exposure to thing feared all in 1 session Cognitive Therapy
Beck--believed that people who get Beck-- depressed have a negative slant of self Black and white thinking "I' m a loser," about the world & the future loser," Cognitive Therapy (cont'd) (cont' By changing the way you think, you can alter your brain chemistry Refocus beliefs to alter thoughts Cognitive Therapy (cont'd) (cont'
Cognitive Restructuring = reshaping thinking Focus on thinking & reasoning processes Beliefs Attitudes Expectations Interpretations Cognitive Therapy (cont'd) (cont' Rational Emotive Therapy most direct! Developed Direct by Albert Ellis form of therapy; most radical of the cognitive therapies Therapist is the expert Rational Emotive Therapy GOAL--to show how misinterpretations GOAL-- cause distress Stop Stop catastrophizing awfulizing Have the courage to be imperfect Stop blaming yourself!! Humanistic Therapy Non-direct form of therapy Opposite of RET Client is the expert GOAL--become fully GOAL-- functioning person Humanistic Therapy (cont'd) (cont' Success depends on: Unconditional Openness positive regard & genuine respect Active listening Warmth & empathy EMOTION BIO PSYCHO SOCIAL Facial expressions of emotions tend to be universal suggests emotions may be biological in origin Gestures **Not universal** James-Lang theory of Emotion Cannon-Bard's theory Cannon-Bard'
theory of Emotion Cannon-Bard's theory Cannon-Bard'
of Emotion Simultaneous experience of Emotion & Body response 2 factor theory of Emotion Theories of Emotion (cont'd) (cont' Two-Factor All theory our emotions are made of the same diffuse physiological arousal we put a label on it & depending on what we label it, we then experience that emotion Then Theories of Happiness Adaptation We Level Phenomenon adapt to a given level & react to changes from that level Theories of Happiness Relative We Deprivation Theory engage in social downward comparison-- compare self with others comparison-- -5...........0...........+5 -5........... Factors related to Happiness Control Optimism Faith Flow Close relationships Purpose in life Helping others Not age related Those actively engaged in activity have higher levels of happiness Who is the happiest?
Most happy: #1. Married Men #2. Single Women Least happy: #3. Married Women #4. Single Men Factors related to Happiness Humor Just laugh (LOL), find the humor (chemical release in body) Exercise: increases serotonin, endorphines Positive Psychology: Seligman (2002) The scientific study of OPTIMAL human functioning aims to discover & promote STRENGTHS & VIRTUES that enable individuals & communities to THRIVE Wisdom & knowledge
Curiosity Love of learning Critical Judgment Open-mindedness Creativity Perspective (wisdom) Courage (overcoming opposition)
Bravery/ Valor Industry & Perseverance Integrity & Honesty Vitality (zest & enthusiasm) Love
Kindness (helping others) (helping others) Intimate Attachment Social Intelligence Justice Citizenship & Teamwork Fairness & Equity Leadership Temperance
Humility Self-Control Self-Control Prudence & Caution Forgiveness & Mercy Transcendence
Appreciation of beauty, awe/ wonder Gratitude Hope & Optimism Playfulness & Humor Spirituality & Purpose MOTIVATION BIO PSYCHO SOCIAL Instinct early We Theory 1900's 1900' do what we do because there is an instinct to do so BIO PSYCHO SOCIAL Psychoanalytic Libido Theory **primitive sexual & aggressive energy Psychoanalytic theory
Sublimation: Re-channeling unacceptable feelings or impulses Coming up with more socially acceptable ways of expressing sexual & aggressive impulses BIO PSYCHO SOCIAL Behaviorist Social Theory environment: things we're we' rewarded for we continue to do Behaviorist Theory (cont'd) (cont' Leper, Magic Green, Ross
Marker Study: Study: Motivation Intrinsic Children would make pictures with magic markers all day if they were allowed to Behaviorist Theory (cont'd) (cont' Magic Marker Study Behaviorist Theory (cont'd) (cont' Controlling Rewards decrease Intrinsic Motivation Informative Rewards Increase Intrinsic Motivation Humanistic Theory: Maslow's Maslow' Hierarchy of Needs Humanistic Theory (cont'd) (cont' Motivated to have a vocation--what they vocation-- are passionate about (top) theory Y People motivated by jobs where they do it for the paycheck (bottom of triangle) Theory X Cognitive Theory Motivated because it tells me WHO I AM usually in reference to others Yerkes-Dodson Theory (Law) Yerkes-Dodson Theory (Law) Motivated to reach optimal level of arousal Optimum level will be different for everyone Opponent Process Theory (Bio) Biologically wired to be in balance If feeling ecstatic one day, may feel a little lower the next Every emotion triggers an opposing emotion that fights it Internal Push (Bio) + External Pull (Social)
**Hunger pushes w/in self to tell self to eat **External forces pull eating pattern Stress & Health General Adaptation Syndrome GAS = model of stress Phase Phase 1: alarm reaction 2: stage of resistance Phase 3: stage of exhaustion Stress & Health Mechanism S= stress: decreases lymphocytes destroys your own immune system B bone T thymus R= sick Control Subjective sense of control to stay healthy Learned Dog Helplessness stayed while getting shocked even after it could get away STRESS Old way of looking at stress Look at any life change, if you add up enough of the stress units, you get sick Social readjustment rating scale
Death of spouse 100 Divorce 73 Jail term 63 Marriage 50 Change in living conditions 25 Vacation 13 Christmas 11 Personality Types Type A Very competitive on the go, always in a hurry Consistent drive in life Demands perfection Is a workaholic, even at play Always Personality Types (cont'd) (cont' Type B Noncompetitive Relaxed, in control Easygoing Understanding Forgiving Confident & happy in job Enjoys leisure & weekends Aerobic exercise
Decrease in: depression Anxiety stress makes all the good chemicals circulate endorphins, morphine, serotonin, etc. Relaxation Progressive Concentrate Muscle Relaxation on specific muscle group, not tension, then relax Relaxation (cont'd) (cont' Autogenic Directing Relaxation blood flow toward specific muscles, warm & relax Reducing & Coping with Stress Relaxation Techniques Progressive muscle relaxation Autogenic relaxation Meditation Biofeedback Breathing The one thing people can "do" do" to reduce stress, anxiety and depression:
A. engage in ECT. B. be more passive. C. engage in selective psycho-surgical operations. D. engage in aerobic exercise. E. engage in all of the above. A decrease in the body's body' Lymphocytes would lead to:
A. vulnerability to illness. B. glowing health. C. increase in antioxidants. D. vulnerability to multiple births. E. increase in lymph glands. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 120 taught by Professor Donnely during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.
- Spring '08
- Classical Conditioning