Exam2_KEY

Exam2_KEY - Bio 46, 2006: EXAM #2 KEY 1. (3 pts) Data from...

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Bio 46, 2006: EXAM #2 KEY 1. (3 pts) Data from a new multinational research study show that levels of MTCT (mother-to-child transmission) of HIV on patients under a placebo treatment are within 25-30%, while levels for those under long-course treatment with ARV drugs are only 5%. You want to apply the best treatment option in your community, but unfortunately you (currently) no means of providing long-term treatment to them. Considering the previous results, in which of the following case(s) would you feel more confident about providing short-course ARV drug treatment to your patients? A. The MTCT levels in people being given short-term treatment in the study described above was within 20-25% B. The MTCT levels in people being given short-term treatment in the study described above was 10%. C. The MTCT levels in people being given short-term treatment in the study described above was 8% and 50% of the babies treated developed serious toxicity. D. There was no data on MTCT levels for short-term treatment. E. A and B 2. (4 pts) Fall has started, ragweed season has peaked, and you develop this sudden on-set of allergies. Desperate and fed-up of having a constant headache, runny nose, and itchy eyes, you call up your doctor who tells you to go to the nearest pharmacy and buy a month supply of Claritin, a well-known anti-histamine. When you get to the closest drugstore, “Relief-is-Here”, you realize that not only is a “Relief-is-Here” generic version of loratadine (the active ingredient in Claritin) much cheaper than the brand-name, but that Claritin prices have also dropped. What intellectual property program would be responsible for the drop in the price of Claritin? (Briefly explain how.) The patent program. Intellectual properties rights and the patent system stipulate that the holder of a patent (in this case of a new approved drug) has exclusive right over that drug for a specified period of time. This usually means that the holder will try to maximize the profits of making and selling this drug setting a higher original price. When the patent expires and generic drugs are allowed to come on the market, prices generally drop and generic drugs are often more affordable than the brand name. Compulsory licensing applies to emergency health situations, which is NOT the case with an allergy drug such as Claritin. 3. (4 pts) Besides parallel importation, what other major intellectual property (IP) mechanism might have a significant role in minimizing the lack of access to essential medicines in poorer countries? Briefly explain how it works. Why might this program not be helpful to a really poor country without any infrastructure?
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Compulsory licensing, which allows a government to request the transfer of a patent and the right to make, use, sell or import a drug from the patent holder (industry/pharmaceutical company) to a government agency, different company or third party, might introduce a generic competitor on the market and cause a subsequent drop in
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Exam2_KEY - Bio 46, 2006: EXAM #2 KEY 1. (3 pts) Data from...

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