Democratic Regimes

First past the post may not be a majority majority of

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Unformatted text preview: - Directly elected president who sets broader agenda and foreign relations, national security - Russia (kind of), South Korea, Taiwan Remember—this completely unconnected from the kind of electoral system used for legislature - Could have president with PR to elect legislature ! Political Parties Why have political parties at all? Bring together diverse groups people and ideas ◦Helps establish majority rule, prevents fragmentation ◦But also heterogeneous—prevents tyranny of the majority Way to hold politicians accountable ◦Articulates ideology that can be evaluated ! ! Participation: Voting and Elections - Central to liberal democracy - Suffrage: right to vote ◦ Age, ethnicity/race, income? ◦Obligatory, voluntary? - Electoral systems: How do we count votes? How do we waste votes? ◦Single Member District (SMD) USA ◦Proportional Representation (PR) ! Single Member District: Mechanics - Electoral system used in minority of democratic countries, including US, Canada, Great Britain - Constituencies as single- member districts: only one seat being contested per district - Numerous candidates compete; voters cast ballots for one individual - Candidate with plurality (largest share) wins seat. “First past the post” - May not be a majority! Majority of votes could be “wasted”—not be cast for the winner! ! Single Member District: Effects - Large number of votes may be wasted - Share of seats may not reflect the share of votes won - Small parties tend to do badly, unable to gain first place in single member districts - Result is a two party system—people unwilling to vote for small parties - One alternative is to have two rounds or other mechanisms to ensure majority ! Proportional Representation: Multimember Districts - System used by majority of liberal democracies - Attempts to make proportion of votes reflect number of seats...
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