Political Violence Lecture Outline

Effects of terrorism less clear than in cases of

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Unformatted text preview: non- state actors against civilians in order to achieve a political goal •Different form - Guerilla war (non- state actors using violence against state) - Human rights violations (state using violence against civilians) - State- sponsored terrorism - Borders between these areas/groups are fuzzy ! Causes of Terrorism •Different explanations for what causes terrorism: - Economic inequality, marginalization - Education - Political institutions (regime type) ! Causes of Terrorism: Evidence •Education does not appear to inSluence terrorism •Economic levels also not a strong predictor of terrorism at individual or national level •Regime type may be more important •Transitional and illiberal regimes may be most conducive to terrorism •In these cases, state is weak, conSlict poorly managed, legitimacy low •Ideas may matter: - Impact of nihilism - Humiliation - Terrorism as a source of group identity ! Effects of Terrorism •Less clear than in cases of revolution •Mostly unsuccessful in achieving their goals •Can weaken economies •Also undermines political order, weaken democracies in particular in quest for security •Perhaps that is objective of terrorism itself ! Terrorism and Revolution: Means and Ends •Think of these as very separate acts •Not always so •Terror originally viewed as necessary tool of revolution (France, 1789) •Over time, terror loses its positive connotation •In the end, however, terrorism still largely directed toward revolutionary goals •Overthrow of state and regime ! ! ! Terrorism...
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