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Wine notes for midterm 2 .docx - VITICULTURE Viticulture is...

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VITICULTUREViticulture is theart and scienceof manipulating thevine to produce grapes(1)The growing of the grapes or the viticulture(2)The turning of grapes into wine, vinification (winemaking)WHAT DOES A VINE NEED TO GROW?Carbon dioxide (CO2)- needed to produce sugarsSunlight- provides energy to produce sugarsWater- combines w/ CO2 to produce sugar &plumps grapesWarmth- needed for growth and sugarNutrients- tiny amounts needed for vine survivalSELECTION OF GRAPE VARIETYClimate & weather, winter hardiness, hours ofsunlight, cycle of vine, resistance to mildew etc.Governed by tradition and in some cases law (oldworld)Drainage of soil… type of soil…Topography; Match with local food; Yield; MarketdrivenCLIMATE AND WINECommercial vines concentrated in 2 broad bandsin northern and southern hemispheres, between30-50 degrees latitudeTo ripen fully, red grapes need more heat andsunshine than whites(min 1500 hours sunshine)Drip irrigation founded out ofU.C. Davis andRoseworthyin 1970’s (not allowed in EC)Degree per day system. Works on the principle ofheat summation, whereby the average dailytemperature is multiplied by the number of daysin the growing seasonCLIMATE VS WEATHER?Climate- the weather condition (temperature, rainfall,sunshine) what one would expect in a typical yearHot ClimatesLower acidHigher sugar and therefore alcoholFull bodied, vinousCool ClimatesHigh acidLow sugar/alcoholLighter to moderate bodiedCLIMATE AND WINE TYPECool climates produce wines are relatively high inacid and low in sugar so are perceived as‘refreshing’Many consider the best red wines to be full bodied(higher in alcohol) and tannicWarm regions allow the grapes to achieve highsugar levels and robust, mature tanninsAspect: the direction a slope faces (exposure tosun)MACROCLIMATES, MESOCLIMATESProximity to large bodies of water will moderatethe climate (Niagara) lakes, rivers and oceansTopography and altitude… the higher up thecooler climateThe mistral, cold winds blowing through the RhonevalleyWCO, page 20 explains it wellTERROIR
Terroir: used to describe the soil, climate andviticulture that makes each grape growing regionin the world uniqueClassic wines are often produced as the result of ahappy three-way marriage of soil, climate andgrape variety, a combination the French call‘terroir’Some people believe terroir is the ‘unexplainable’magic of wine from a place, other believe it is ascienceSOILCertain grapes seem to be suited to certain soil (The most important factor is the soil drains well.Poor wine comes from wines with ‘damp feet’Planting on slopes helps and air drainage (nopocketing of air)Best wine often comes from vines that arestressed. If the soil is poor the wine will send rootsdeep down int the subsoil to find water/ nutrients,collecting trace elements and minerals as it doesso and thereby improving the quality of the fruitRocks promote ripening thanks to reflecting solarradiation

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Term
Winter
Professor
BruceMcAdams
Tags
The Grave, Carbon dioxide

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