Fabiszak_M_Conceptual_Metaphor

1 the results of the analysis of the literal and

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Unformatted text preview: for the nouns battlefield and battleground presented in Fabiszak – Kaszubski (2005), show that such closely related synonyms appear in complementary distribution, so that one form is more likely to be used metaphorically, while the other literally. 5.3. CONFLICT Another lexeme to investigate is that of conflict. The CCELD first defines its nominal senses: 1. 5. Conflict is 1.1 serious disagreement and argument about something important. 1.2. A state of mind in which you find it impossible to make a decision or choice. A conflict is 5.1 a serious difference between two or more beliefs, ideas or interests, which cannot be reconciled. 5.2 fighting between two or more countries or groups of people. Senses 2,3,4 and 6 explain the use of the word in specific prepositional phrases. There is only one verbal sense: 7. If two or more ideas, interests, accounts etc. conflict, they are very different and it seems impossible for each of them to be true. The dictionary also gives the adjective conflicting, following the verb sense 7, but does not define it, and only provides two examples, neither of them military. According to the definitions, only the countable noun has a military sense. An analysis of a sample of 100 random hits out of 329 of the verb conflict, showed 24 singular nouns erroneously tagged verbs and 76 uses of the verb, all in the general sense given above. For the adjective conflicting 200 random hits out of 881 were analysed. 6 of them were verbs tagged as adjectives, 193 were used in the general sense and 1 was Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential 215 used in the military sense. The results of the analysis for the noun conflict, which is the only one belonging to the domain of WAR, are given below: Table 3. The frequency of uses of different senses of the noun conflict Word conflict, singular noun (200 random hits out of 5058) conflicts, plural noun (200 random hits out of 1427) noun total (400 random hits out of 6485) Literal Metaphorical 54 military 1 physical violence 145 general 35 military 164 general 1 disease 89 military 1 physical violence 309 general 1 disease The analyses presented in the paragraph above indicate that the verbal and the adjectival uses should not be considered as metaphorical extensions of the military sense, simply because they do not have such a sense. When it comes to the noun, indeed the military sense is the most concrete of those attested in any significant number (i.e. ignoring the single physical violence use). Thus this military use may suggest that when the noun is used in any of its other senses it can be considered a lexical realisation of the conceptual metaphor X IS WAR. 5.4. DEFEND Next, we shall have a closer look at the lemma DEFEND. According to the CCELD the verb defend has the following senses: 1. 2. 3. 4. If you defend someone or something 1.1 you take some action in order to protect them against danger or violence. 1.2 you do or say something that is intended to help them to survive or continue, for example when their rights or existenc...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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