4 if something such as a chemical a disease or an

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Unformatted text preview: 5 207 446 395 256 936 242 5058 927 1427 11692 1093 2021 977 1197 650 1188 1240 6706 954 927 5526 670 2865 1558 415 251 570 251 invasion military (A) military (N) missile missiles naval navy raided raiders raid (N) raids rebel (N) rebellion rebels (N) soldier soldiers surrender (N) surrender (V) surrendered target (Inf) target (N) targeted targeting targets troop (N) troops war weapon weapons 1904 10322 460 874 1011 1476 1993 287 1163 649 661 974 1124 1717 3427 461 511 497 241 5858 797 414 2582 509 4725 27264 1940 3918 These key words are used as the query items in the BNC. As many theoretical works in Conceptual Metaphor Theory seem to refer to language in general rather than to any specific genre, the BNC as a whole is consulted. The analysis follows the Pragglejaz procedure. Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential 203 3. The British National Corpus The British National Corpus is a 100 million words corpus of contemporary British English created between 1991-1994. As with many corpora it is biased towards the written mode of the language (90%), but has a spoken part as well (10%). The selection criteria devised during the design stage were to ensure that within the written part 75% of the texts were informative, 25% were fiction. As for the types of media, 60% are books, 25% are newspapers and journals, between 5-10% are miscellaneous published materials (leaflets, brochures), between 5-10% are miscellaneous unpublished materials (letters, notes) and up to 5% texts written to be spoken. Texts could not be older than 1975 with an exception of a number of fiction texts which go back to 1964. The spoken part is divided into a demographic section and a context-governed part. The demographic part consists of transcriptions of recordings made by 124 volunteers, both men and women from 38 different locations in the UK and from various social groups, who recorded their conversations for three days. The context-governed part consists of transcriptions falling into four categories: educational and informative contexts, business events, institutional and public events and leisure events. More detailed information is available on the BNC website at http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk. BNC can be accessed through a dedicated concordancer SARA. The concordancer allows the researcher to look up the investigated word or phrase. It returns the matches in the form of concordance lines. If the context in the line is not sufficient it is possible to consult the text from which the example was derived through the Browse function. The returns can be sorted by left and right context, so that the same phrases preceding or following the node word can be grouped together, which facilitates the interpretation. SARA also offers collocability tests: z-score and MI (Mutual Information) statistical tests can be used for a predefined window size, i.e. a selected number of words to the left and right of the node word. an attempt to utilize z-score for the task in hand has been made, but the interpretation of results was as time consuming as interpreting...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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