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Unformatted text preview: hich allows one to refer to an entity without
calling up its image and its rich evaluative network of associations.
Technological development allowing researchers to create and search
multimillion word corpora, linguists are able to rely more on language-inuse evidence, so that their own intuition is no longer the major source of
reference. The linguistic corpora, however, reflect only a certain part of
language, mostly written.14 Also the written part, even in the carefully designed corpora, is opportunistically tilted towards newspaper language.
As a result the investigations of contemporary language often focus on a
specific register: the language of the press. Journalists in their drive for a
scoop, and in the attempt to sell, frequently use inflated rhetoric, responsible for the introduction of highly emotional vocabulary into the language of the news. They also construct catch phrases, which through constant repetition become the clichés reproduced again and again by the
media, and by the authorities communicating with the public through the
media. The value-laden, simplified picture of the world as represented by
the media becomes the world for its recipients.
14 The volume of recorded spoken language is much smaller than that of the written
language, also often it is a recording of speech based on a written script, like in radio or
television talks or interviews. 74 Chapter II A CMT-informed, corpus-based analysis of war reports is given in
Chapter Four. In Chapter Five the most frequent words from the semantic
field of war identified in the purpose-built corpus are searched for in the
general corpus (BNC) to show to what extent they can be interpreted as
indicative of the X IS WAR conceptual metaphor. Before we can turn to the
linguistic analyses of these chapters, though, it is necessary to draw a
wider picture of the cultural grounding of the concept of ‘war’ in Chapter
Three. Chapter III The concept of ‘war’ in the humanities
This chapter starts with an overview of the 19th century theoretical approach to war and warfare proposed by the Prussian General Carl von
Clausewitz. His theory is contrasted with this of the Swiss Henri Jomini, a
general in the French and Russian army. They both laid the foundation
for the contemporary theory of war.
Section 3 presents the views on the nature of war in the late 20th
century of a philosopher and international relations expert Pierre Hassner.
Section 4 is devoted to a review of a sociological analysis of war on the
example of the Second Gulf War and the American intervention in Afghanistan in 2001. These two sections are the basis of the expert model
of war proposed in Section 8. Section 5 leaves the expert investigations
and moves into an examination of the image of war as represented in
Polish and British literature. This section is followed by a review of a history of war journalism. They both contribute to the folk model of war,
which is proposed in Section 8. Section 7 surveys linguistic analyses of
the language used in the media representation of war.
2. Clausewitz and Jomini on war
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