Unformatted text preview: phors can be highly conventionalised or novel (unconventional). A conceptual metaphor proposed by
Lakoff – Johnson (1980) LOVE IS A COLLABORATIVE WORK OF ART is
novel and can only have novel linguistic expressions. A conventional Conceptual metaphor and its implications for discourse 37 conceptual metaphor, i.e. LIFE IS A JOURNEY, can have either highly conventional linguistic expression, like in He passed away, or a novel, however much exploited in CL literature, expression from Robert Frost’s
poem “The Road Not Taken”: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I - / I
took the one less travelled by.
The function dimension is related to Lakoff – Johnson’s (1980)
division of conceptual metaphors into ontological, structural and orientational. A distinction mentioned before in 2.1.
As far as the nature of metaphors is concerned, they can be either
knowledge-based or image-based with a specific sub-type: the one-shot
image metaphor. In this case it is impossible to unveil the generic structure underlying metaphor, it is more like a superimposition of two images,
as in My wife’s waist is an hourglass.
When it comes to the level of generality, metaphors can either be
specific or generic. These two concepts are related to natural taxonomies
with basic level representatives of a category and the hyperonym, the
general label for the category. In the case of the conceptual metaphor the
generic-level is represented by e.g. EVENTS ARE ACTIONS or GENERIC IS
SPECIFIC, while the specific-level metaphors are, for instance, all those
structural metaphors so common in CMT literature: ARGUMENT IS WAR,
LIFE IS A JOURNEY.
This classification of metaphors by Kövecses (2002) puts together
various typologies offered in Lakoff – Johnson (1980), Lakoff – Turner
(1989) and Lakoff (1993). It offers a more structured account of the
metaphorical construal of the world and the interaction between metaphorical expressions and metaphorical concepts.
3. Idealized Cognitive Models
Lakoff developed his theory of meaning further in his Women, Fire and
Dangerous Things (1987) where he proposed the existence of Idealised
Cognitive Models as the reference constructs for understanding concepts.
He defines them as follows (Lakoff 1987: 68): Chapter I 38 Each ICM is a complex structured whole, a gestalt, which uses four kinds
of structuring principles
– propositional structure, as in Fillmore’s frames
– metaphoric mappings, as described by Lakoff and Johnson
– metonymic mappings, as described by Lakoff and Johnson
Each ICM, as used, structures a mental space, as described by Fauconnier. In his discussion of the Dyirbal classifier system, based on Dixon
(1982), he isolated what he believes to be the general principles of human categorization (1987: 95-96). There are eight such principles. Centrality distinguishes the basic from the peripheral members of the category. Chaining allows for the structuring of complex categories, so that
the basic members can be chained to less central members, and these in
turn to the members even further away from the centre. Not all the
members are chained to each other, but those which are may be a testimony to...
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