As many theoretical works in conceptual metaphor

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Unformatted text preview: terrorism and terrorist as not belonging to the war lexical field. They have removed the following words as metaphorical: support, intelligence, crisis, strike, response, fire. In step 4, the judges’ intuitions have been further corroborated by the intuitions of corpus lexicographers as presented in the Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (CCELD). This dictionary was based on the Cobuild Corpus, later expanded and renamed as the Bank of English. It was a project led by Prof. John Sinclair, the precursor of corpus lexicography. This dictionary has been selected, because it was based on a corpus different from the one that is used in the present study, i.e. the British National Corpus. This dictionary is also used in the Pragglejaz procedure (described in Section 4) used in the analysis (Sections 5.1-5.7.). It is important to describe the structure of a dictionary entry in the CCELD. It is arranged by the senses and in the case of verb-noun homonyms the two parts of speech do not have separate entries. In such cases, the nominal uses of the word follow the explanation of the verb senses. They may have their own example preceded by the formula used as a noun. The CCELD have confirmed the judges’ intuitions. It has also eliminated further words, for example force, because it belongs to more domains than one. It has a military sense listed as number 20: 20. A force of soldiers or armed people is an organized group of soldiers or military vehicles. However a more general sense is listed as 9: 9. Someone or something that is referred to as force has a considerable effect or influence on a situation or on people or things. Sense number 7 is the first nominal sense, which is also the most concrete: 7. If you use force to do something or if it is done by force, strong and violent physical action is taken to achieve it. Sense number 7 seems to be the primary one in accord with the embodiment hypothesis. The other two senses considered here (number 9 and 20) are both metaphorical extensions of 7 and it would be difficult to 200 Chapter V prove that 9 is an extension of 20 rather than 7. Such words have also been deleted from the list. The filtering procedure based on the intuition of the three judges concerning word metaphoricity in the war context as well as the consultation of the CCDEL has rendered the following list of words as having an unambiguously military sense: military, attack, defence, general, troop, fight, bomb, crisis, missile, alliance, soldier, target, navy, weapon, raid, army, armed, invasion, ally, conflict, campaign, civilian, rebel, commander, naval, colonel, arms. One word with a TWRC frequency below 100 has been added to the list on the basis of my intuition: surrender, because it shows a significant metaphorical potential and represents a less investigated grammatical category, that of a verb. The 28 words obtained in the filtering process presented above have been used as queries in the British National Corpus Word Query (the corpus is described in Section 3 below). The Word Query shows all word forms beginnin...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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