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Unformatted text preview: terrorism and terrorist as not belonging to the
war lexical field. They have removed the following words as metaphorical: support, intelligence, crisis, strike, response, fire.
In step 4, the judges’ intuitions have been further corroborated by
the intuitions of corpus lexicographers as presented in the Collins Cobuild
English Language Dictionary (CCELD). This dictionary was based on the
Cobuild Corpus, later expanded and renamed as the Bank of English. It
was a project led by Prof. John Sinclair, the precursor of corpus lexicography. This dictionary has been selected, because it was based on a corpus
different from the one that is used in the present study, i.e. the British National Corpus. This dictionary is also used in the Pragglejaz procedure
(described in Section 4) used in the analysis (Sections 5.1-5.7.). It is important to describe the structure of a dictionary entry in the CCELD. It is
arranged by the senses and in the case of verb-noun homonyms the two
parts of speech do not have separate entries. In such cases, the nominal
uses of the word follow the explanation of the verb senses. They may
have their own example preceded by the formula used as a noun.
The CCELD have confirmed the judges’ intuitions. It has also
eliminated further words, for example force, because it belongs to more
domains than one. It has a military sense listed as number 20:
20. A force of soldiers or armed people is an organized group of soldiers or
military vehicles. However a more general sense is listed as 9:
9. Someone or something that is referred to as force has a considerable effect or influence on a situation or on people or things. Sense number 7 is the first nominal sense, which is also the most concrete:
7. If you use force to do something or if it is done by force, strong and violent physical action is taken to achieve it. Sense number 7 seems to be the primary one in accord with the embodiment hypothesis. The other two senses considered here (number 9 and
20) are both metaphorical extensions of 7 and it would be difficult to 200 Chapter V prove that 9 is an extension of 20 rather than 7. Such words have also
been deleted from the list.
The filtering procedure based on the intuition of the three judges
concerning word metaphoricity in the war context as well as the consultation of the CCDEL has rendered the following list of words as having an
unambiguously military sense:
military, attack, defence, general, troop, fight, bomb, crisis, missile, alliance, soldier, target, navy, weapon, raid, army, armed, invasion, ally,
conflict, campaign, civilian, rebel, commander, naval, colonel, arms. One word with a TWRC frequency below 100 has been added to the list
on the basis of my intuition: surrender, because it shows a significant
metaphorical potential and represents a less investigated grammatical
category, that of a verb.
The 28 words obtained in the filtering process presented above
have been used as queries in the British National Corpus Word Query (the
corpus is described in Section 3 below). The Word Query shows all word
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