Dirven 2002 1993 elaborates the connection between

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Unformatted text preview: r. For him, metaphor (understood as substitution and similarity) is connected with selection aphasia, the poetry and romanticism in literature, and expressionism and symbolism in art; metonymy, on the other hand, (understood as dependent upon predication, contexture and contiguity) is responsible for agrammatism, novel and realism in literature and cubism in art. Dirven (2002 [1993]) elaborates the connection between the Jakobsonian metaphoric and metonymic poles with paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations in language, respectively. He views metonymy and metaphor as two mental strategies, which although forming a continuum, can be opposed in their prototypical uses along the following lines (Dirven 2002: 100): In metonymy two elements are brought together, they are mapped on one another, but keep their existence and are construed as forming a contiguous system. (…) In metaphor, too, two elements are brought together, but the source domain loses its existence when mapped onto the target domain. Although the source domain itself is wiped out, some aspects of its own nature or structure are transferred to that of the target domain. The contrast between the two elements or domains is often so great that this disparity can only lead to full substitution of one domain by the other. Croft (1993 [2002]) is strongly critical of CMT, but he adheres to its major claims. He notices that the status of domains is of vital importance to the theory, therefore their nature cannot remain underspecified. He proves his point in a detailed analysis of the LIFE IS A PATIENT metaphor proposed by Lakoff – Johnson (1980: 49) as the underlying conceptual metaphor for such linguistic expressions as: This is a sick relationship. They have a strong healthy marriage. The marriage is dead – it can’t be revived. Their marriage is on the mend. We’re getting back on our feet. and several others. Croft (2002: 176) criticises this decision and convincingly argues in favour of the LIFE IS A BODILY STATE metaphor instead. Conceptual metaphor and its implications for discourse 25 This shows how arbitrary the concept of domain and domain mapping is and how vague the procedures for domain identification are. Kövecses (p.c.) maintains that the more detailed a study of the concept in question we conduct, the more apt our proposed domains should become. He advocates such methods as a means of linguistic analysis of examples, elicitation of folk models, and introspection. In view of this argument, in Chapter Three I shortly review the definitions of the concept of war as proposed or at least implied in philosophy, sociology, literature, mass media studies and linguistics. This revision is hoped to provide a necessary cultural grounding for the understanding of the concept of war essential in the identification, categorisation and labelling of conceptual metaphors in Chapter Four. A further discussion of the procedure of domain identification and a proposal for a method facilitating it is given in Chapter F...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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