Even those which are clearly marked as figurative

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Unformatted text preview: s that the US-Libyan confrontation is already accentuating. (Mapping: Air Raids are A Means of Accentuating Incomprehension in a Dispute) (82b) Then no sooner had Tory backbenchers gunned down the Shops Bill than the bombs and guns of US F111 warplanes were in rather more serious action against the cities of Libya. Mr Neil Kinnock will deliver an all-out onslaught against the Government’s practical support for the American attack. The Kremlin’s caution, for the second time in a month, was well disguised behind a barrage from the news agency TASS, which described the US action as ‘barbarous and totally unjustified aggression’. In a stinging new attack on the United States for its recent air raids on Libya, Mr Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet leader, warned in a Kremlin speech that a similar crisis over Syria or Iran could break out at any moment. (Mapping: A Violent Speech is A Military Attack) In (82a) the international relations between Arabs and Americans are construed of in terms of DISPUTE, as if an air raid were a person taking part in a conversation, accentuating the lack of understanding between the interlocutors. The examples in (82b) draw on the lexical field of war. In the first example, the author is clearly well aware of the associations that the use of gunned down can activate and uses the phrase in a pun-like fashion, aiming at achieving an aesthetic effect. The remaining three instances in (82b) can be considered fossilised figurative expressions, with limited emotional appeal, perhaps with the exception of the onslaught reactivated with the strengthening modifier all-out. A close reading of the texts identified a number of expressions which seem to be motivated by conceptual metaphors. None of these expressions, though, was in any way re-activated. They are listed in (87) below. (83) PERSON IS AN ANIMAL: Reagan Administration hawks; as free people they have not let themselves be cowed by threats of violence; [i]t [the US] is bristling with new threats, now not only to Libya, but also to Syria and Iran; (Conceptual metaphors: NATION/STATE IS A PERSON+PERSON IS AN ANIMAL) 158 Chapter IV WAR IS GARDENING/FARMING: to plant bombs; (Mapping: Bombs are Seeds) NATION/STATE IS A PERSON: a substantial measure of European backing; nobody in London would be surprised if America struck against Libya (+HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT); [t]he lack of a friendship treaty makes it easier for Moscow now to leave Libya to the mercy of US warplanes without losing face (+ metonymy: CAPITAL FOR A STATE); Much of the optimism among Western governments about the chances of averting a serious new East-West clash stems from the difficult relationship between the Kremlin and Colonel Gaddafi, who is one of its closest allies in the Arab world. (+HANDTO-HAND COMBAT, +metonymy: THE SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE STATE) WAR IS A HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT: strike, combat, hit back, to give a warning knock STATE IS A HOME: Even this, however, arouses unease among the Greeks, Italians and Spaniards, who have most to lose from a war on their doorste...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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