From among the three expressions declare war has the

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Unformatted text preview: ating this type of discourse, namely those of war, sports and evolutionary struggle. She also notices that in the analysed texts business is constructed as a masculinised social domain. Fabiszak – Kaszubski (2005) contained a pilot study of the fullscaled project described in the present book. It aimed to investigate the genre distribution and metaphoricity of such lexemes as BATTLEFIELD, BATTLEGROUND, DECLARE WAR and FIGHT WAR. The results are summarised as follows: An analysis of genre distribution of metaphoric expressions, even within such a small-scale pilot study as the present one, can bring about interesting results. It shows that the two verb phrases DECLARE WAR and FIGHT WAR and the noun BATTLEFIELD are used predominantly literally. They also reach the highest frequency in history texts. When we consider the genre distribution of metaphoric uses, history, not surprisingly, allows the least metaphoricity (2-4%), fiction ranks second with 6-18%, and the mass media seems to attract most metaphoric uses with 31-67% of metaphoricity. The high frequency of metaphoric expressions in the mass media in comparison to other genres corroborates earlier claims concerning the high usefulness of conventional metaphoric expressions in persuasive texts. From among the three expressions, DECLARE WAR has the greatest potential for figurative use, particularly in the mass media genre. BATTLEGROUND stands in stark contrast to these three expressions as it is used primarily metaphorically, which seems to be related to the fact that it appears most Chapter II 64 frequently in the mass media. If we compare the distribution of the two nouns in the selected genres BATTLEFIELD is used figuratively more often in fiction, whereas BATTLEGROUND is used most often in history. This can also be partly explained by synonym speation (Fabiszak – Kaszubski 2005: 316-317). It therefore seems that if the metaphoric potential of lexemes from the domain of WAR is to be analysed in the present work, the data coming from the press may be the most promising source for the investigation. The results can be checked against the general corpus, to offer a broader perspective for the study. The important questions that the pilot study identified were the problem with unambiguous assignment of the metaphor status (see the discussion of Moon above), and the definition of the concept of ‘war’, as well as its relationship to the concept of ‘politics’. A review of literature on war coming from various disciplines is endeavoured in Chapter Three, prior to the linguistic analysis of data, with the hope that a definition of war will emerge from the review. Our second pilot study (Fabiszak – Kaszubski 2006) was conducted so that the potential of corpora for metaphor research could be tested. We discovered that the most useful data retrieving and sorting techniques were the sorting of concordances by their left and right environment, calculating z-score and retrieving the related...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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