He concentrates on the journalistic business writing

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Unformatted text preview: positively evaluating ones or neutral ones. If this is the case, it may be because FEIs are perishrastic and used as politeness devices or euphemisms (…) Note that there appear to be some distinctions here between British and American English: some FEIs which evaluate negatively in British English are neutral or even positive in American. For example, evidence in BofE suggests 5 Metaphors and other forms of figurative language as well as the use of implication are often discussed in CDA writing as veiled evaluation strategies. 6 CCDI is an acronym for Collins Cobuild Dictionary of Idioms edited by Moon (1995). Chapter II 60 that in British English labour of love often has negative connotations, mildly denigrating the activity in question: labor of love in American is more usually neutral or positive. In her research on cohesion and FEIs Moon empirically corroborates Lakoff – Johnson’s (1980) claim that even when metaphors or proverbs are extended, the cohesive ties are not broken, so that the argument develops smoothly (1998: 288). Similarly to Moon, who notices the problem of genre specificity, Partington (1998) stresses that claims about metaphors can benefit from the genre sensitivity of the studies. He concentrates on the journalistic business writing and using various press corpora (for example the 1993 edition of The Times on CD-Rom) devises a practical way of discovering metaphors popular in this genre. Using WordSmith Tools he identifies two lists of words: one which consists of words more frequently used in the business section than in the other sections of newspapers treated together, and those which are less frequent. The frequency lists indicated that business language is dominated with vocabulary related to an up and down motion. Partington links these findings to Lakoff – Johnson’s orientational metaphor based on the up-down schema and its extensions into cultural values which he formulated as UP IS MORE, DOWN IS LESS and UP IS 7 BETTER, DOWN IS WORSE. He stresses that although the corpus data give ample support to the claim that UP IS MORE, they also undermine the claim that usually UP IS GOOD. In fact, in the genre of press business reports, as Partington puts it: … it is by no means the case that UP is always, or even predominantly BETTER. When, for example, costs, debts, inflation or unemployment are up, then this is far from good (Partington 1998: 113). An examination of the more frequent words list, besides the orientational metaphors, contributed to an identification of such possible metaphors as MARKET IS A RACE, AHEAD IS THE FUTURE, and depending on the vantage 7 I would like to point out here that in the chapter devoted to orientational metaphors, Lakoff – Johnson (1980: 16) talk about MORE IS UP, LESS IS DOWN and GOOD IS UP, BAD IS DOWN cultural values and not UP IS MORE, DOWN IS LESS and UP IS BETTER, DOWN IS WORSE as suggested by Partington (1998: 113). Corpus linguistics and the language of mass media 61 point AHEAD IS THE PAST, SOFT IS WEAK/EASY/LESS, HARD IS TA...
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