Fabiszak_M_Conceptual_Metaphor

If you fight 31 you take part in a battle or war 32

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Unformatted text preview: e is threatened. If you defend a person or their ideas or actions, you argue in support of them when they have been criticised. If people defend a place or a country they protect it against attack by using military force. If someone, especially a lawyer defends someone accused of something they argue in a court of law that the charges are not true. 216 Chapter V 5. If a champion defends his or her title or championship, he or she plays a match or a game against someone who will become a new champion if they win. Here senses 1.1 and 1.2 are formulated in very general terms such as some action, something. It is thus difficult to say if this is the most concrete human oriented sense of the word. Unlike the definition of the verb attack it does not include reference to the use of physical force. The MEDAL organizes the senses differently with the military sense coming to the fore in the example, as shown in the formulation of the first sense and the example chosen to illustrate it: 1. to protect someone or something from attack: Thousands of young men came forward, willing to defend their country. The vagueness of the CCELD definition of the first sense may be an indication that it is sense 3 which is the most basic. I therefore also consider it as the most basic. This hypothesis is tested by the frequency counts in the analysis. Senses 2, 4 and 5 are regarded as metaphorical extensions of sense 3. The noun defence has 5 senses in the CCELD: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Defence is 1.1 action which is taken in order to protect someone or something against attack. 1.2. the system and organization of a country’s armies and weapons. A defence is 2.1 a quality or possession that someone or something has and that they can use to protect themselves. 2.2 A way of behaving or thinking which protects you emotionally and stops you showing weakness. 2.3 something that you say or write which supports ideas or actions that have been criticised or questioned. 2.4 a process in a court of law of denying a charge which has been made against someone. The defence is the case that is presented by a lawyer for the person in a trial who has been accused of a crime; also used sometimes to refer to this person and his or her lawyers. The defences of a country or region are all its armed forces and weapons. The defence in a football team, a hockey team, etc. is the group of players who try to stop the opposing players scoring a goal or a point. The word action used in the explanation of sense 1 is so general and vague that it is difficult to say to what extent this sense can be considered as ‘most concrete, human oriented’. In this case, however, the example cho- Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential 217 sen to illustrate it may cast some light on the issue: They carried sticks for defence rather than aggression… It does imply physical aggression and so introduces a certain parallel to the definition of the word attack. The adjective defensive has its military sense as number 1: 1. 3. You use defensive 1.1 to describe things that are designed for or capable of defending a country or area by military force. 1.2 to describe things that are intended to protect someone...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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