The doubts raised at this point would also obtain for

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Unformatted text preview: or something Someone who is defensive acts in a way that is intended to hide their weakness. Sense 2, not quoted above, refers to the phrase on the defensive, which will not be considered here. I regard sense 1.1 as the basic one, while sense 1.2 as its generalisation. Sense 3, although more human oriented than 1.1 concerns an inner psychological state difficult to observe and therefore less concrete than 1.1. The results of the analysis of the literal and metaphorical uses of these three parts of speech derived from the stem defen* (showing their frequencies) are presented in the table below. Table 4. The frequency of uses of different senses of the lemma DEFEND considering its various morphological forms Word Literal defend, base form of a lexical verb and the infinitive (200 random hits out of 2021) defended, past tense and past participle (200 random hits out of 977) defending, participle, (200 random hits out of 640) verb total (600 random hits out of 3638) Other Metaphorical 31 military 18 physical violence 43 general 43 military 7 physical 4 general 23 military 11 physical 3 general 97 military 36 physical 50 general 53 speaking 25 sport 10 legal 20 other 97 speaking 19 legal 18 sport 12 other 87 speaking 23 legal 18 politics 14 sport 21 other 237 speaking 57 sport 52 legal 18 politics 53 other 218 Chapter V Word Literal Other defensive, adjective, (200 random hits out of 1240) 54 military 14 physical 60 general defence, singular noun and proper noun, (200 random hits out of 11477) 57 military 3 physical 57 proper noun defences, noun (200 random hits out of 1098) 70 military 1 physical noun total (400 random hits out of 12575) 127 military 4 physical 57 proper noun Metaphorical 30 sport 13 speaking 10 business 9 emotional 5 political 5 other 32 legal 17 sport 16 speaking 14 other 4 ambiguous 32 legal 21 disease 14 against sea 14 emotion 13 sport 10 speaking 10 business 15 other 64 legal 30 sport 26 speaking 21 disease 14 against sea 14 emotion 10 business 29 other 4 ambiguous In this table, the third column shows those uses of the verb where on the bases of the limited sentential context, even if extended to a wide co-text view, it was impossible to determine the nature of the protective action taken, be it physical or verbal. This seems to be corroborated by the dictionary definition, as here the wording is also general. In the case of the nominal uses, column 3 was used to single out the proper names involving the word Defence (Minister/stry of Defence, Defence Secretary). For the verb defend the most frequently used sense is that of speaking to protect someone or something from criticism. Here, as in the case of attack, the noun is most frequently used in the military sense. At the same time, the verb is used twice as often in the speaking sense than in the military sense. Can this be taken as an indication that the use of the noun in its Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential 219 speaking sense will have a more metaphorical ring to it than the verb? Will...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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