There is however some variation in the selection and

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Unformatted text preview: arstwowy ‘superpower, adj.’, stosowanie przemocy i ślepego odwetu ‘employment of force and blind retaliation’, syjoniści ‘Zionists’, dywersja ‘sabotage’, wojny kolonialne ‘colonial wars’, ekscesy ‘riots’, violence-related negative words: agresja ‘aggression’, agresor ‘aggressor’, depcząc prawa międzynarodowe ‘treading upon the international laws’, okaleczona bombami Libia ‘Libya mutilated by bombs’ (personification of state + highly emotive word), brutal ‘brutal’, ofiary ‘casualties, victims’, nie sprowokowany, niczym nie uzasadniony akt brutalnego rozboju ‘unprovoked, unjustifiable act of robbery’, akty przemocy ‘acts of violence’, okropieństwa wojny war atrocities’, gangsterstwo ‘gangsterism (political violence)’, amerykańskie bestialstwo „‘American bestiality’, piracki atak lotnictwa amerykańskiego ‘a pirate American air raid’, odwet, zemsta ‘revenge, retaliation’, zniewolić ‘to enslave’, pognębić ‘to oppress’, awanturniczy hazard ‘belligerent gamble’, neogangsteryzm ‘neogangsterism’, przelana krew ‘shed blood’, Amerykańskie ludobójstwo ‘American genocide’, rozbójnicza akcja/zbrodnia ‘murderous action/crime’, trupy ‘corpses’, bandyci ‘bandits, thugs’, śmierć, śmiertelny ‘death, deadly’ deceit-related negative words: spisek ‘conspiracy’, kłamliwe wybiegi ‘false excuses’, szantaż zbrojny ‘military blackmail’, agresywnym knowaniom ‘aggressive scheming’, ze zdradziecko napadniętą Libią ‘with a treacherously attacked Libya’ The data above are, to a certain extent, similar to those presented in (29), so that such categories as: terms for emotions, emotionally loaded political terms, violence- and deceit- related negative words are repeated here and many of their representatives match those in (29). The negative speech acts category of (29) had to be re-structured and re-named; consequently, in (69) we have two categories: evaluative terms and negative speech verbs and their derivatives. The reason behind this is that in the Libya texts the alliances are very transparent. The US is constantly vili- 148 Chapter IV fied and constructed as the brutal oppressor of the heroic and innocent Libya. Thus, it is not only negative speech acts which are used to create this image, but also numerous negative evaluative adjectives and nouns (labelled here as evaluative terms) as well as verbs and verbal derivatives (labelled here negative speech verbs and their derivatives). As a result, not only the wide range of abusive roots, but also an extended use of word categories testify to the intensity of the propaganda of the time. Among the emotionally loaded political terms many of the examples in (69) coincide with those of (29). However, if interpreted jointly with the violence related negative words, the LEGAL metaphors of (60 a and b) and the RAPE metaphors, the press construal of the American air raids on Libya is less focused on the notion of colonialism and anachronism and more...
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