Therefore both the verb and the noun surrender can be

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Unformatted text preview: t than the verb fight, and unlike the noun fight, can be considered an indication of the underlying metaphor X IS WAR. 5.6. INVADE Another group of morphologically related words to be considered is that of the invade family. The verbal senses in the CCELD are described thus: 1. 2. 3. To invade a country means to enter it by force with an army. If people, animals or insects invade a place or a building, they enter it in large numbers; sometimes used humorously. If someone or something invades your privacy, they disturb you when you are peaceful or when you want to be alone. Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential 223 In this entry the first, military sense is the basic sense. Senses 2 and 3 are the metaphorical extensions of sense 1. The noun invader is defined as: 1. 2. Invaders are soldiers who are invading a country. An invader is a country or army that has invaded or is about to invade another country. Here sense 1 is the basic one, more in accord with the human scale. Sense 2 extends the meaning to abstract entities like countries and can be therefore considered metaphorical. Invasion has the following definition: 1. 2. An invasion is the action of an army entering a country by force. An invasion is also 2.1 the arrival of someone or something in a place where they are not wanted. 2.2. the arrival in a place of large numbers of people or things; often used humorously. Sense 1 will be here considered as basic. Senses 2.1 and 2.2 are its metaphorical extensions. Table 6. The frequency of uses of different senses of the lemma INVADE considering its various morphological forms Word Literal invade, base form of a lexical verb and the infinitive (200 random hits out of 251) 100 military invaded, past tense and past participle (200 random hits out of 266) 121 military 7 physical violence Metaphorical 25 about abstract entities (thoughts) 25 come in big numbers 24 about pest, weeds etc 14 privacy, personal space 10 about natural forces (sea) 1 sport 1 species 24 about abstract entities 21 come 8 privacy 7 natural forces 3 business 3 about sexual intercourse 3 animals 3 disease 224 Chapter V Word verb total (400 random hits out of 516) Literal 221 military 7 physical violence invasion, noun (200 random hits out of 1904) 165 military 2 physical violence invasions, noun (141 hits) 104 military 2 physical violence invasion/s, noun total (341 hits out of 2045) 269 military 4 physical violence Metaphorical 49 about abstract entities 46 come 24 about pest 22 privacy 17 natural forces 3 business 3 sexual intercourse 3 animals 3 disease 1 sport 1 species 9 arrival 8 disease 5 of privacy 3 sport 3 about pest etc 2 natural forces 1 about abstract entities 1 species 1 sexual intercourse 20 arrival 6 natural forces 2 business 2 disease 1 species 1 about abstract entities 1 of privacy 2 ambiguous 29 arrival 10 disease 6 of privacy 3 sport 3 about pest 8 natural forces 2 business 2 abstract entities 2 species 1 sexual intercourse 2 ambiguous Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential Word invaders, plural noun (200 random hits out of 251) Literal 170 military 225 Metaphorical 13 unarmed group of people...
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