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relationship between language and thought is instead a two-way interaction
within a single complex system. In this view metaphor emerges from a dynamics of language and thinking, and is at the same time conceptual and
linguistic. Furthermore our data suggest that the affective – the beliefs, attitudes, values, and emotions of participants – plays a central, but often neglected, role in the emergence of particular forms of metaphor. They develop their emergentist discourse approach to metaphor further
Metaphorical language and metaphorical thinking are therefore interdependent, each affecting the other in the dynamic and dialogic processes of
(Cameron – Deignan 2006: 675). They also expand their approach with a socio-cultural dimension:
… metaphor, like most other uses of language, is designed for other people and for particular discourse purposes. An important dimension of the
dialogics of metaphor is its use to express affect and attitude along with
the ideational content
(Cameron – Deignan 2006: 676). 36 Chapter I This approach to metaphor seems to be akin to the approach transparent
in Nerlich – Clark (2002) presented above, who stress the importance of
language system in the study of metaphor. The emphasis on the role of
metaphor in the expression of affect and the values of the speaker is also
discussed in reference to frame shifting (Coulson 2001) and axiological
semantics (Krzeszowski 1993, 1997) in Sections 6 and 7, respectively.
All of these studies constitute the theoretical foundation for Chapter
Four in which I analyse the use of linguistic metaphor in war reports to
identify its function in war discourse in different times and languages.
The presentation of data on a selected military conflict as represented in
one newspaper is divided into three parts: paragraph-structuring metaphors, isolated metaphors, and other rhetorical strategies. Paragraphstructuring metaphors are lexical realisations of a single conceptual
metaphor underlying larger portions of text, such as a paragraph or an
entire article. They play an important discourse-structuring function.
Isolated metaphors are also linguistic expressions motivated by conceptual metaphors, but their impact on discourse is limited to one sentence
or sentence fragment only. Other rhetorical strategies may, or may not
be motivated by conceptual metaphors but they contribute to the overall
imagery and often enhance the rhetorical effect of the text.
The next section gives a brief overview of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory to consolidate the presentation so far. Then we turn to other
conceptual structures (ICM, image schemata, force dynamics) organizing our mental processes to finish with Blending Theory and axiological
2.8. The systemization of metaphors
Kövecses (2002) offers a comprehensive outline of the state of the art of
metaphor research. He structures the taxonomy of metaphors around four
coinciding dimensions: conventionality, function, nature and the level of
Both conceptual and linguistic meta...
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