They are attack n and fight v the third and fourth

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Unformatted text preview: 6 pest 4 band/team name 2 species 1 new and popular things 1 abstract entities 1 personal space 1 sexual violators 1 virus In the case of the verb invade, and the nouns invasion and invaders, the basic sense is at the same time the most frequent. It is the military sense. When used metaphorically they refer to large groups of people, animals, or plants deemed threatening but even slightly more often to abstract entities, such as feelings or thoughts, appearing in the mind of an experiencer. In all these cases, I believe, the words in question can be regarded as indicative of the X IS WAR metaphor. 5.7. SURRENDER The last set of words to be investigated in this section is the verb and the noun surrender. According to the CCELD, the verb surrender has the following senses: 1. 2. 3. 4. If you surrender, you stop fighting or resisting someone and agree that you have been beaten, often by formally signing a document. If you surrender to a force, temptation, feeling, etc you are unable to resist it any longer and so you allow it to gain control of you or influence you. If you surrender something to someone, you give away something that is valuable or important to you. If you surrender a ticket, passport, or some other document, you give it to someone in authority when you are told to do so. Senses 1, 2 and 3 also have their nominal equivalents, introduced by used as a noun phrase. The analysis of the senses suggests that sense 1 is the basic one, while sense 2 is its extension. It seems that senses 3 and 4 are not related to sense 1 in a synchronically transparent way. Etymologically, the word comes from the Old French surrender ‘give up, deliver’ 226 Chapter V and was borrowed with this sense as well as the military sense, which must have been a meaning extension from the then basic ‘give’ (OED). Historically, then, sense 3 could be considered basic, with 4 being its specification, and 1 and 2 extensions. At present, though, the first interpretation seems most consistent, i.e. sense 1 being the basic one, sense 2 its metaphorical extension, senses 3 and 4 related to each other but with the relation to senses 1 and 2 weak or altogether non-existent. The results of the analysis of the BNC examples are presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. The frequency of uses of different senses of surrender considering its various morphological forms Word Literal surrender, base form of a lexical verb and the infinitive (200 random hits out of 511) 80 military sense 22 give away surrendered, past tense and past participle (random 200 hits out of 400) 92 military 14 one person to another 21 give away 5 adjectives tagged as verbs, all in the military sense 172 military 43 give away 14 one person to another 5 adjectives tagged as verbs verb total (400 random hits out of 911) surrender, noun (200 random hits out of 461) 122 military 11 give Metaphorical 65 to abstract entities (will, power) 18 unarmed groups of people 5 sport 5 sexual 2 disease 1 natural forces 2 un...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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