This impression is further strengthened by the use of

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Unformatted text preview: se in war reports in two languages, only a handful of dead metaphoric expressions was identified; consider (91) below: (89) Droga do pokoju w Afganistanie – nikt temu nie przeczy – będzie długa i najeżona przeszkodami. ‘The road to peace in Afghanistan – nobody denies that – will be long and full of (lit. bristling with) obstacles’ (POLITICS/WAR IS A JOURNEY) Armia rządowa w ciągu kilku lat walki z siłami opozycji wyrosła jednak na sprawną, dobrze uzbrojoną i wyszkoloną. ‘The government army over several years of fighting with the opposition forces has become (lit. grown up) efficient, well equipped and well trained.’ (AN INSTITUTION IS A PERSON, mapping: Army is a Person Growing Up) W operacji oczyszczania z sił rebelianckich szlaku Kabul – Salang zginąć miało – jak podała afgańska Agencja Bachtar setki rebeliantów z ugrupowania Masuda. ‘In an a mopping-up operation the Kabul – Salang route of the rebel forces, according to the Bachtar Agency, hundreds of rebels from Masud’s group died’. (MILITARY OPERATION IS CLEANING). The possible underlying conceptual metaphors could of course not be posited on such scarce evidence, but have been identified and discussed in other studies.31 31 See Lakoff (1992, in Chapter Three, Section 6) and Chilton – Lakoff (1995) on politics, and Hughes (1988, see Chapter Two, Section 4) on social cleansing, though he does not discuss it in terms of CMT, but rather as a case of euphemism at the level of language. A qualitative analysis of war news 165 2.8. The Times on the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan (1988-1989) The corpus of articles analysed in this section comes from The Times Archive online, the key word ‘Afghanistan’ was searched for in the same two periods as those delineated for Trybuna Ludu, i.e. May 7th 1988 – June 2nd 1988 and Jan 28th 1989 – March 3rd 1989. The search rendered 52 and 74 articles for each period respectively. Out of these, 88 were selected as concentrating on the withdrawal of the Soviet army from Afghanistan and on the general situation in Afghanistan at the time. 2.8.1. Paragraph-structuring metaphors In two cases conceptual metaphors constitute a frame of reference for longer stretches of text and are effectively elaborated. In the first case, the Source Domain is that of ANIMAL: (90) ‘If the Najibullah regime adopts a porcupine stance, it may be a lot more difficult for the fox, in the form of the guerrillas, to dislodge it than wishful thinking has led some people to expect,’ a European military expert said. (Conceptual metaphor: AN INSTITUTION IS AN ANIMAL, mappings: Najibullah Regime is a Porcupine, The Guerrilla is a Fox) Here a military expert uses the reference to two animals to illustrate the point he is making. The metaphor serves both as an ornament and as a strengthening of the argument through an analogy to the animal world, in which a prickly porcupine, although itself not a particularly aggressive or powerful animal, cannot be easily defeated. The fox – guerrilla tactics, which was so efficient against a regular army occupying a large and mountainous terrain – may not be equ...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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