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Unformatted text preview: of the Source and Target Domains. In
BT terminology it stresses the influence of the Generic Space on the Input
Spaces in the blending process. Lakoff (2005, see footnote 14, this chapter) claims that GENERIC IS SPECIFIC conceptual metaphor posited in Lakoff – Turner (1989) performs in CMT a similar role to that of the
Generic Space in BT.
7. Axiological semantics
A notable exception to the generalization expressed by Coulson is the
work of Krzeszowski (1993, 1997a), who promotes the idea of axiological semantics. He links values to emotions and observes that “emotions
are among the major factors determining information processing rather
than merely modifying it” (Krzeszowski 1997a: 9). He further develops
… in the ontogenetic development of every human, the first categorizations are valuations. This must be so, because Man is a valuating being.
All our actions, our thinking, our attitudes and interactions with the world
and with the other people, and last but certainly not least, our emotions are
connected with or laden with certain values. To appreciate the presence of
values as well as to valuate we need a platform of reference upon which
valuations can be made. In other words, we need to recognize some system of values. Valuations constitute an aspect of all categorizations, and
categorizations directly manifest themselves in language. This establishes
a direct link between values and language
(Krzeszowski 1997a: 15). The starting point for Krzeszowski’s analyses are Johnson’s (1987) image
schemata and Puzynina’s (1992) axiology. He posits the existence of the
basic positive-negative value scale, which he calls a PLUS/MINUS schema
and calculates the axiological parameter of preconceptual image schemata. He convincingly argues for the hypothesis that one pole of every
schema is usually evaluated positively while the other negatively and that Chapter I 50 these evaluations are experientially grounded. He further goes on to discuss the axiological aspects of metaphors. He also proposes a series of
techniques for eliciting the axiological charge of lexical items, understood
as their position on the PLUS/MINUS scale.
8. A summary of the chapter and an outline for the analysis
Conceptual Metaphor Theory is an attempt to elucidate the mental processes responsible for our understanding. It claims that metaphor-based
understanding consists in a co-activation of the source and target domains, which can be formalised in terms of metaphorical mappings. As a
method of linguistic analysis of metaphorically structured concepts it first
requires a description of the concept in terms of the folk model. The second step is to identify and name possible conceptual metaphors the evidence for which is found in linguistic expressions. Then metaphoric mappings underlying groups of expressions are formulated.
In CMT-informed discourse analysis attempts are made to explain
the discourse function of conceptual metaphors (Cameron – Deignan
2006, Charteris-Black 2004, Musolff 2004, Nerlich 2005). They may influence the representation of the world through their affective power related to the hiding and highligh...
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