C has pointed out to me that this ritual may be

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Unformatted text preview: amatisation of the topic. Example (17) shows a similar vocabulary use: (17) manewr dyplomatyczny ‘a diplomatic manoeuvre’ Some examples, e.g. (18), contrast military action with political dispute, and then the verbs from the lexical field of dispute tend to penetrate the realm of war: (18) Ich kraj jest gotów do negocjacji z Wielką Brytanią, ale odpowie zbrojnie na wszelkie próby odzyskania wysp. ‘Their country is ready for negotiations, but it will answer militarily to any attempts to recapture the islands’. 6 Szwedek (2006, p. c.) pointed out that example (16), and probably also (15), is an instantiation of the POLITICS IS WAR metaphor. 116 Chapter IV Negocjacje ‘negotiations’ are used in their literal sense, while odpowie zbrojnie ‘will answer militarily’ is used metaphorically. This use may be motivated by the conceptual metaphor WAR IS A DISPUTE. Simultaneously, the verbs of speaking (dispute) play an important role in both politics and war, as in (19) and (20) below: (19) stan niewypowiedzianej wojny ‘the state of undeclared war’ (20) zdefiniowanie politycznego stanowiska ‘the defining of the political stance’ Example (19) refers to a war-constitutive ritual, that of declaring war7, while (20) points to the role of constructing narratives in the making of politics. Appearing side by side with other metaphorical uses, they blur the distinction between the two. The group of words originating in the lexical field of business and representing the metaphor WAR IS BUSINESS8 is most common with 13 types of lexical expressions: (21) 7 ekonomiczne podteksty ‘economic undertones’, bilans strat obu stron ‘the balance of losses of both conflicting sides’, zapłaci znacznie wyższą cenę w ludziach i sprzęcie ‘… will pay a considerably higher price in both men and equipment’, straty ‘losses’, kosztownym ‘costly’, rozmiar strat ‘the scale of losses’, w ostatecznym rachunku ‘at the last count’, minimalizować straty własne ‘to minimise collateral damage (lit. self losses)’, utracić/odebrać terytorium ‘to lose/gain territory’, znaczne ilości sprzętu woj-skowego ‘significant amount of military equipment’, osiągnąć cele polityczne przy minimalnej cenie ‘to achieve political goals at minimal price’, cena popularności ‘the price of popularity’, większość laburzystowskich posłów stwierdziła, że nie wolno mu [rządowi] wystawiać czeku in blanco Kamila Turewicz (2007, p. c.) has pointed out to me that this ritual may be motivated by the WAR IS A THEATRE conceptual metaphor, in that declaring war is like the part of the chorus in the theatre, the chorus which introduces the audience to the play and outlines whether it is going to be a tragedy or a comedy. Similarly, when war is declared, the audience (nation/states as well as their citizens) learn about the change from peaceto war-like relations obtaining between the countries. 8 The WAR IS BUSINESS metaphor appears in the Clau...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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