E metaphor in discourse linguistic forms conceptual

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Unformatted text preview: g with a given letter string. In this way related derivatives or inflectional forms can be identified. If these forms have a frequency of around or above 200, then they are included in the analysis. In the case of the word attack, the Word Query results with a frequency above 200 have been the following: attack attacked attacker attackers attacking attacks 9275 2851 622 289 1160 33472 The senses of the word forms identified by the Word Query and not in the qualitative analysis of newspaper reports have been checked in the CCELD. In the present case the word to consult has been attacker. There has been no such entry in the CCELD. As a remedy another corpus based 2 Word formation derivatives such as attack-and-run, attack-oriented with the frequency of 1, attack-minded with the frequency of 5 and other words with such low frequencies were removed from the analysis. Words from the lexical field of war and their metaphoric potential 201 dictionary: the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners (MEDAL 2002) has been consulted. Here the definition does not include any military reference: someone who physically attacks someone else The word has therefore not been considered as indicative of the source domain WAR. The remaining words are used as queries for concordances of 200 random hits divided into different grammatical categories, for example attacks as 3rd person sg. present tense verb and plural noun, by means of the POS (Part of Speech) Query. The concordances are analysed with the aim of determining the predominant literal use (possible basis for metaphoric processes). The Word Query results identifying morphologically related words and their frequencies are presented below. The number following the word indicates its frequency. Some of the words may have the same string of letters representing different part of speech. The word forms marked in bold are considered most interesting because they have morphologically related forms from different word classes: verb, noun and adjective. As many studies concentrate on nouns and the very formulation of conceptual metaphors requires nominalization, the word forms representing a number of word classes are analysed. It is also in accord with the call by Goatly (1997) to extend research on metaphorically used expressions beyond the noun. allied (Adjective=A) allied (Participle=Part) ally armed (A) armed (Part) armies arms (Noun=N) army battle (N) battled battlefield battles (N) bomb (N) 1340 311 841 3475 524 998 10554 11173 5826 222 334 871 1877 bombardment bombed bomber bombers bombing bombs (N) campaign (N) campaigns (N) civilian civilians colonel command (Infinitive=Inf) command (N) 278 326 597 486 1048 1104 8351 1281 1356 791 1817 436 2605 202 Chapter V commanded commander commander-in-chief commanders commando commandos commands conflict (Inf) conflict (N) conflicting conflicts (N) defence defences defend defended defender defenders defending defensive fight fighter fighters fighting fights fought general (N) generals invade invaded invaders 722 190...
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This essay was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course LING 1100 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '09 term at Cornell.

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