E killing muammar gadaffi two expressions which

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Unformatted text preview: uwielokrotnionym stylu XIX-wiecznej polityki kanonierek, mogące podpalić pokój świata. ‘he takes action today in the multiplied 19th c. gunboat policy, which can set flame to the world’s peace’ by to okropne wydarzenie nie stało się iskrą zapalną dla światowego pokoju ‘so that this terrible event would not become a spark setting fire to the world’s peace’ War is an Avalanche: [naloty] mogą rozpętać lawinę wydarzeń ‘[air raids] can start an avalanche of events’ War is a Wild Animal: polityka nieokiełznanego wyścigu zbrojeń jądrowych ‘the policy of an unbridled nuclear arms race’ Enemy is a Wild Animal: pragnął brutalnie „poskromić” niezależną od siebie, antyimperialistyczną, orientację Dżamahiriji ‘he wanted to brutally tame the independent, anti-imperialist orientation of Jamahiriya’ War is an Animalistic Behaviour: przeciw prawu dżungli ‘against the law of the jungle’ In (66) I have presented examples originating from two inputs: NATURAL FORCE and WILD ANIMAL. The first three conceptual metaphors highlight the intensity and the unfathomable peril that war creates. It constructs war as beyond human control. It is therefore not particularly coherent with the context, in which the blame and the responsibility for the war is so undeniably apportioned to the United States. The major function of these mappings is to raise apprehension and anxiety about the outcomes of the conflict in question. The remaining two metaphors facilitate the construing of a portrait of the enemy, in the first case of Libya, and in the second – of the USA. The ‘taming’ example rests on an assumption that the US treats their enemies as animals, without respect. This conceptual metaphor gains indirect support from the expressions activating the Glorious War Myth, such as godność narodowa ‘national pride’, złamanie i rzucenie na kolana ‘lit. breaking and throwing to the knees = humiliating’, zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa i autorytetu Stanów Zjednoczonych ‘an increase in the security and authority of the United States’. 144 Chapter IV In the ‘law of the jungle’ example the US is imputed to conduct their policy (including the waging of wars) in accord with the ‘law of the jungle’ rather than international law or the United Nations Charter. THE USA IS A WILD ANIMAL is yet another example of the vilification of the enemy already discussed in relation to the examples in (60), (64), (65). This metaphor is facilitated by the operation of the Great Chain of Being. That is, when a higher level entity, in this case humans are conceived in terms of a lower entity, here animals, they undergo a degradation. The expressions illustrating the WAR IS A RAPE metaphor draw on two sources: the extremely emotionally negatively loaded RAPE and LEGAL terms: (67) gwałcąc podstawowe normy prawa międzynarodowego i zasady Karty Narodów Zjednoczonych ‘raping (=violating) the basic norms of the international law and the principles of the United Nations Charter’ autorzy wtorkowego gwałtu ‘the authors of the Tuesday rape’ As in the previous set of texts on the Falklands war, the WAR IS A RAPE metaphor triggers negative emotions in the audience. Lakoff (1992, see Chapter Three, Section 7) in his analysis of the metaphor system underlying the first Gulf War claimed that to ensure the support of the American public opinion the war for oil had to be rhetorically restructured as a war in defence of K...
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